The Maya believed they could use the stars, moon, and planets to know the will of the gods.
In the early 9th century CE, the Maya day keepers created astronomical tables that tracked the course of the celestial bodies. The tables are found on the walls of a unique structure at Xultun, Guatemala and in the Dresden Codex, a bark-paper book.
The Maya believed the Earth was fixed and central and that the sun, moon, stars and planets were gods that travelled between the Earth, the underworld and other celestial places.
They believed the gods were closely involved with humans and therefore planned their movements to coincide with certain celestial moments. The Maya were experts in predicting eclipses, solstices, and equinoxes.
The Mayan sun god was Kinich Ahau, one of the creator gods more powerful than the Mayan pantheon. During the day, Kinich Ahau would shine in the sky, and at night, transform himself into a jaguar and pass through the underworld.
The moon was associated with a maiden, an old woman, and a rabbit. The powerful Maya moon goddess Ix Chel fought with the sun and made him go to the underworld every night. Ix Ch’up was another moon goddess, young and beautiful.
Mayan buildings were often laid out in accordance with astronomy. Temples and pyramids were designed so that the sun, moon, stars, and planets would be visible from the top or through specific windows at certain times of the year.
The Mayan calendar was associated with astronomy. The Maya used two calendars: The Long Count calendar was divided into a solar year as a base, and the Calendar Round consisted of two calendars - a 365-day solar year and a 260-day Tzolkin cycle.
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