Anatomy of the hippocampus - Deepstash

Anatomy of the hippocampus

The hippocampus is the main structure of the hippocampal formation, which is composed of two gyri (brain folds) and the subiculum. The two gyri, the dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn (cornu ammonis), form interlocking connections with one another. The dentate gyrus is folded and nestled within the hippocampal sulcus (brain indentation).

Neurogenesis (new neuron formation) in the adult brain occurs in the dentate gyrus, which receives input from other brain areas and aids in new memory formation, learning, and spacial memory.

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The hippocampus: an overview
  • The hippocampus is the part of the brain that is involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories. It is a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
  • The hippocampus is a horseshoe shaped structure, with an arching band of nerve fibers (fornix) connecting the hippocampal structures in the left and right brain hemispheres.
  • The hippocampus is found in the brain's temporal lobes and acts as a memory indexer by sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary.

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The hippocampus is involved in several functions of the body including:

  • Consolidation of New Memories
  • Emotional Responses
  • Navigation
  • Spatial Orientation.

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  • Forebrain - encompasses the cerebral cortex and brain lobes.
  • Midbrain - connects the forebrain to the hindbrain.
  • Hindbrain - regulates autonomic functions and coordinates movement.

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Brain

The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger and every process that regulates our body. Together, the brain and spinal cord that extends from it make up the central nervous system, or CNS.

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The different kinds of memories

We hold on to different kinds of memories.

  • Short-term memories last seconds to hours and long-term memories last for years.
  • We also have a working memory, which allows us to keep something in mind for a limited time by repeating it.
  • Declarative memories are memories you experience consciously, like facts or "common knowledge."
  • Nondeclaritive memory unconsciously builds up. These include procedural memories, such as riding a bicycle or playing the piano.

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Memorizing new material

When we try to memorize new information, we assume that the more work we put in, the better we will do.

But, our memory for new information is the most fragile just after it has first been encoded. It is more susceptible to interference from further information.

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