Qubits rely on a property known as entanglement - the property of one particle is entangled with another.
When there are two entangled particles with a combined spin of zero and one particle collapses so that it spins clockwise, the other particle's state will be anticlockwise. This means, once entangled, qubits can be used to represent massive numbers. For example, Google's quantum computer Sycamore had 53 qubits, meaning it could represent over ten quadrillion combinations simultaneously.
MORE IDEAS FROM How a quantum computer is different from your laptop, explained by a scientist
A conventional computer uses electricity within its silicon chips. Small amounts of electrical current are turned on or off. It represents true and false, or the binary numbers one and zero.
But a quantum computer changes individual quantum elements such as electrons or photons, called qubits. Due to their 'spin', electrons can be up or down, and photons vertical or horizontal at the same time. This quantum superposition means that a qubit is in both states at once.
Quantum computers need delicate storage requirements. If a qubit interacts with an external factor such as a vibration or temperature variation, it can cause them to fall out of superposition before their job has been done.
To prevent this, scientists try to preserve these superposition states of qubits in vacuum chambers and very cold spaces.
Quantum Entanglement is a phenomena that describes how the measurements of spin, momentum, and position can all be same between two unique particles.
The main issue is that entanglement can only exist for brief moments because any sort of observation or change in environment can break it.
Entanglement is interesting because it can fit well into other theories as well. One example is Hawking Radiation. The very premise of the theory is that an Entangled Photon Pair is separated at the surface of a Black Hole.
How interesting would it be if humans could be entangled with each other?
Understanding consciousness and how it fits in the universe is a perennial puzzle for decades. Some call it the holy grail of science.
Quantum physics is able to describe the atomic and subatomic level particles and their properties in ways never before understood, and science is beginning to understand a possible link.
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