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Scientists can mathematically model this entangled state of superposition — in which two particles affect each other even if they’re separated by a large distance — as demonstrated in a 2007 report published by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence . And remarkably, the final formula accurately predicts the paradoxical outcome of the coin toss paradigm. "The lapse in logic can be better explained by using the quantum-based approach," Haven and Khrennikov noted.

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### Uncertainty

Quantum mechanics describes the behavior of the tiny particles that make up all matter in the universe, namely atoms and their subatomic components. One central tenet of the theory suggests a great deal of uncertainty in...

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an individual's final choice is unknown and unpredictable. Quantum mechanics also acknowledges that people's beliefs about the outcome of a given decision — whether it will be good or bad — often reflect what their final choice ends up being. In this way, people's beliefs interact, or become "

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and your predictive power disappears — you can't know the exact location and momentum of a given electron, but you could calculate the probability that the particle may appear in a certain spot, traveling at a particular rate. In this way, you could gain a hazy idea of what the electron might be...

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### Can Quantum Help Explain In "Human" Decision-making ?

Some scientists think quantum mechanics can help explain human decision-making.

The same fundamental platform that allows Schrödinger's cat to be both alive and dead, and also means two particles can "speak to each other" even across a galaxy's distance, could help to explain perhaps the mo...

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### Heads and tails (at the same time)

Consider an example:

Imagine you're placing bets on whether a tossed coin will land on heads or tails. Heads gets you \$200, tails costs you \$100, and you can choose to toss the coin twice. When placed in this scenario, most people choose to take the bet twice regardless of whether the initi...

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"One could say that the 'quantum-based' model of decision-making refers essentially to the use of quantum probability in the area of cognition," Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, co-authors of the textbook "Quantum Social Science" (Cambridge University Press, 2013),said.

Just as a parti...

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### ...

Drawing from one deck may earn a player large sums of money in the short term, but it will cost them far more cash by the end of the game. Other decks deliver smaller sums of money in the short-term, but fewer penalties overall. Through game play, winners learn to mostly draw from the "slow and s...

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### .....

To bolster the value of their study, the team took brain scans of each participant as they completed the Iowa Gambling Task. In doing so, the authors attempted to peek at what was happening inside the brain as participants learned and adjusted their game-play strategy over time. Outputs generated...

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### ...

falls in line with Pavlonian conditioning, wherein people learn to predict the consequences of their actions based on past experiences, according to a 2009 report in the Journal of Mathematical Psychology .

If truly constrained by this framework, humans would consistently weigh the objectiv...

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### Quantum Probability Theory Can

"Cognitive scientists found that there are many 'irrational'human behaviors,"Xiaochu Zhang, a biophysicist and neuroscientist at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, told that Classical theories of decision-making attempt to predict what choice a person will make given cert...

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### Analogy Betw÷en Beliefs And Behaviours

the behavior of a particle located in Japan would alter the behavior of its entangled partner in the United States. In psychology, a similar analogy can be drawn between beliefs and behaviors. "It is precisely this interaction," or state of entanglement, "which influences the measurement outcome...

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However, if players aren't allowed to know the result of the first coin flip, they rarely make the second gamble.

When known, the first flip does not sway the choice that follows, but when unknown, it makes all the difference. This paradox does not fit within the framework of classical rei...

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Unlike classical theories of decision-making, the quantum world makes room for a certain degree of uncertainty.

Classical psychology theories rest on the idea that people make decisions in order to maximize "rewards" and minimize "punishments" — in other words, to ensure their actions resu...

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a number of active brain areas in the healthy participants during game play, including activation of several large folds within the frontal lobe known to be involved in decision-making. In the smoking group, however, no hotspots of brain activity seemed tied to predictions made by the quantum mo...

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### Betting on quantum

In their new study, Zhang and his colleagues pitted 2 quantum-based models of decision-making against 12classical psychology models to see which best predicted human behavior during a psychological task.The experiment, known as the

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as highlighted in a study published in 2014 in the journal Applied Neuropsychology: Child . This pattern held true in Zhang's experiment, which included about 60 healthy participants and 40 who were addicted to nicotine.

The two quantum models made similar predictions to the most accurate ...

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### First Step Towards Solution

However, "further research is warranted" to determine what these brain activity differences truly reflect in smokers and non-smokers, they added. "The coupling of the quantum-like models with neurophysiological processes in the brain ... is a very complex problem," Haven and Khrennikov said. "Thi...

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### Let's Convert Hope To Trust

"We hope that quantum reinforcement learning will also shed light on [these fields], providing unique insights."

In time, perhaps quantum mechanics will help explain pervasive flaws in human logic, as well as how that fallibility manifests at the level of individual neurons.

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