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However, "further research is warranted" to determine what these brain activity differences truly reflect in smokers and non-smokers, they added. "The coupling of the quantum-like models with neurophysiological processes in the brain ... is a very complex problem," Haven and Khrennikov said. "This study is of great importance as the first step towards its solution."
Models of classical reinforcement learning have shown "great success" in studies of emotion, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, free will and many other cognitive functions, Zhang said.
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However, if players aren't allowed to know the result of the first coin flip, they rarely make the second gamble.
Some scientists think quantum mechanics can help explain human decision-making.
as highlighted in a study published in 2014 in the journal Applied Neuropsychology: Child . This pattern held true in Zhang's experiment, which included about 60 healthy participants and 40 who were addicted to nicotine.
the behavior of a particle located in Japan would alter the behavior of its entangled partner in the United States. In psychology, a similar analogy can be drawn between beliefs and behaviors. "It is precisely this interaction," or state of entanglement, "which influences the measurement outcome...
falls in line with Pavlonian conditioning, wherein people learn to predict the consequences of their actions based on past experiences, according to a 2009 report in the Journal of Mathematical Psychology .
"Cognitive scientists found that there are many 'irrational'human behaviors,"Xiaochu Zhang, a biophysicist and neuroscientist at the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, told that Classical theories of decision-making attempt to predict what choice a person will make given cert...
In their new study, Zhang and his colleagues pitted 2 quantum-based models of decision-making against 12classical psychology models to see which best predicted human behavior during a psychological task.The experiment, known as the
To bolster the value of their study, the team took brain scans of each participant as they completed the Iowa Gambling Task. In doing so, the authors attempted to peek at what was happening inside the brain as participants learned and adjusted their game-play strategy over time. Outputs generated...
"We hope that quantum reinforcement learning will also shed light on [these fields], providing unique insights."
Scientists can mathematically model this entangled state of superposition — in which two particles affect each other even if they’re separated by a large distance — as demonstrated in a 2007 report published by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence . And remarkably, the f...
an individual's final choice is unknown and unpredictable. Quantum mechanics also acknowledges that people's beliefs about the outcome of a given decision — whether it will be good or bad — often reflect what their final choice ends up being. In this way, people's beliefs interact, or become "
Drawing from one deck may earn a player large sums of money in the short term, but it will cost them far more cash by the end of the game. Other decks deliver smaller sums of money in the short-term, but fewer penalties overall. Through game play, winners learn to mostly draw from the "slow and s...
"One could say that the 'quantum-based' model of decision-making refers essentially to the use of quantum probability in the area of cognition," Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, co-authors of the textbook "Quantum Social Science" (Cambridge University Press, 2013),said.
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