A Booming Business - Deepstash

deepstash

Beta

Get an account to save ideas & make your own & organize them how you wish.

deepstash

Beta

The limits of ancestry DNA tests, explained

A Booming Business

Consumer genetic testing is expanding as more than 26 million people have taken this kind of test, according to the MIT Technology Review.

52 SAVES


This is a professional note extracted from an online article.

Read more efficiently

Save what inspires you

Remember anything

IDEA EXTRACTED FROM:

The limits of ancestry DNA tests, explained

The limits of ancestry DNA tests, explained

https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2019/1/28/18194560/ancestry-dna-23-me-myheritage-science-explainer

vox.com

5

Key Ideas

Human DNA is a Puzzle

In genetic ancestry testing, even identical twins who have virtually the same DNA may or may not get the same results.

Different DNA companies can show different results, in the case of twins.

A Booming Business

Consumer genetic testing is expanding as more than 26 million people have taken this kind of test, according to the MIT Technology Review.

The First Step

DNA tests are still considered estimates, due to imperfect data.

When a person wanting to give the test provides the DNA sample through the saliva, the company checks for variance in the saliva, as 99.9 percent of the DNA is the same in humans.

99.9 percent Accuracy

Even a 99.9 percent accuracy can result in discrepancies because, with 1 million genome places, there is a chance of 1000 errors.

Ancestry and Heritage

Human history is complicated and messy, and cannot be tracked fully with a DNA test.

DNA ancestry tests aren't completely linked to the heritage. There can be some ancestors from which we haven't inherited any DNA.

SIMILAR ARTICLES & IDEAS:

Ancestry testing

DNA-testing is done by millions of people all over the world to analyze their DNA and find out where they originate.

Targeted marketing for DNA home-testing kits shows models under the banne...

DNA home tests

Some problems arise regarding DNA home tests about what happens after the results of land.

  • Storage of sensitive genetic information. An open-source DNA testing site was recently used by the police to identify a killer.
  • Emotional side effects after receiving confusing or life-changing results.
DNA home test variances

Many who have done a DNA home test begin to question their family heritage and wonder if they might have been misled. However, taking DNA tests from different companies reveal wildly varying results. There are a few reasons for this: 

  • The companies are only looking at very recent DNA samples, from a relatively small group, in one specific database.
  • The databases are skewed towards different parts of the world. Some have more American customers and other more British or Australian customers.
  • These companies don't ask about the genetics of the past, and which of those past inferred genetic clusters we get our ancestry from.
  • We probably inherit very few genes from our ancestors. DNA is inherited in “chunks” that break up the further back in time you go.
  • There are ancestors from whom you inherit no DNA.

2 more ideas

Different Outcomes
Different Outcomes

We're all different. If we are all on the same weight-loss diet, there will be various outcomes. Some people will lose a lot, some will lose a little, and a few will even gain weight.

Science...

Genetics And Nutrition

Scientists are continually finding links between genetics and nutrition. Many of us have a gene called FTO that makes us more likely to be overweight. You can get a genetic test to tell which variant of the FTO gene you happen to have.

However, scientists who study the genetics of nutrition think it’s premature to base nutritional advice on your DNA. That FTO gene, for example, has only been shown to make a few pounds’ difference in body weight.

Nutritional Genetic Testing

The coded messages of your DNA are billions of letters (nucleotides) long. Personalized nutrition companies only care about a few of your DNA letters and can tell you which "variant" you have at each of those locations (known as SNPs) along your DNA strands.

Genetic testing companies can learn what SNP variants you have by supplying them with a vial of spit.

6 more ideas

Fitness in Our Genes

A new study on the genetics of fitness is trying to find out if the body's receptivity to exercise is genetic or not.

The researchers have looked at thousands of individual segments of DNA, ...

Gene For Metabolizing Fats

A particular gene known as ACSL1 seems to play a role in how a body metabolizes fats and subsequently affects exercise response.

The findings, though preliminary, do point towards exercise benefits being genetic. Still, exercise has a multitude of benefits and cannot be discarded by individuals who do not have a certain type of gene.

Biohacking - “do it yourself” biology

Biohacking is an open innovation and social movement that seeks to further enhance the ability of the human body. This includes humans trying to get cyborg like features, achieve hyper ...

Biohacking drugs

Common reasons for biohacking drugs are that there are not enough cures, that drug prices are too high, and that participating in biohacking is taking a stand against the establishment – primarily Big Pharma.

The dangers

Trying to discover drugs through biohacking compromises on quality scientific research.

The drugs usually skip key toxicity tests before being administered to patients and in doing so seriously jeopardises the safety of those involved. Without rigorous pre-clinical testing in the laboratory, it is very difficult to predict how that drug will fully interact with the complexity of the human body.

A cry for identity

The term “race” is widely used but isn't scientifically valid. Race is a social construct. For many, it is a desire for identity and belonging.

Ancestry
  • We are more closely related than we think. A family tree isn't the most scientifically accurate metaphor: Trees branch out while family trees contain loops, for example, as a result of first cousins having children.
  • The commercial genetic tests remain scientifically unconvincing.
Racist beliefs

The core of many racist stereotypes is that race is a biological classification.

  • We are told that race is a social construct, only to have scientists carelessly mention both race and ethnicity in their research papers.
  • The majority of geneticists think genetic differences between ethnic groups are meaningless regarding behavior or innate abilities. But scientific papers still show genes for complex traits, like intelligence, are along racial lines.
  • Race science is pseudoscience, but genetics and evolutionary research are tied up with race.
    Microbes

    Research found the following difference in stomach microbes of different individuals:

    • Intestinal microbes of people living in villages, having a natural diet, are much more complex, and ...
    Wrong Baseline Data

    Due to the new kinds of microbes discovered in villagers, all the previous research on diet and microbes, which used the baseline data of the Western civilization microbe, thought to be the healthy and normal microbe, is now incorrect. 

    Digesting Fibre

    The Western world has stomach microbial communities that could digest junk food and might re-diversify and recover (to a limited extent) if we just ate more whole grains and veggies.

    6 more ideas

    Human Evolution

    Evolution is a gradual change in the DNA of a species over many centuries, occurring by natural selection when traits created by genetic mutations promote survival or reproduction in an organism.

    Stretch Genes
    • Human beings adapt to their environments genetically, over a period of time. 
    • Developing countries having populations with no access to proper health care continue to survive and thrive. 
    • In countries where infectious disease outbreaks have occurred in the past, survivors develop a natural resistance to the disease and pass it on to their offspring. 
    • People living in higher altitudes develop a mutated gene that increases blood oxygen content, resulting in better survival in the next generation.
    Our Diet

    What we consume or don't consume influences our genes. Example: Countries where milk isn’t taken commonly, develop lactose intolerance and other digestive problems.


    Our Ultra-processed and super-unhealthy diets are also contributing to genetic adaptation, with studies showing changes in blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The upcoming result of this mutation of DNA is uncharted territory and will be more fully understood in the coming decades.

    one more idea

    Background music is powerful
    Background music is powerful

    Even if you are hardly aware of it, music can be surprisingly powerful.

    Researchers have found that it can affect:

    • how much time we think has passed while waiting
    • how co-op...
    The background music industry

    It is also known as music design, music consultancy, or as part of a broader package of experiential design or sensory marketing.

    The work involves creating distinct,  compatible musical identities for brands.

    Muzak and background music

    Muzak, a brand of background music, set the template for background music. It played in retail stores and other commercial premises and sold itself on the basis that it could increase productivity in workplaces. 

    Muzak's template for background music persisted for decades. The music was a balm to ease awkward silences and to encourage and brighten the mood.

    2 more ideas

    Denying Your Own Creativity

    That’s a self-imposed and self-limiting belief. Stop that.

    Creativity is a requirement for problem-solving and we all problem-solve. Acknowledge that you're inherently creative,

    Being Afraid Of Being Wrong

    We hate being wrong, but mistakes often teach us the most and allow us to innovate.

    Think of the pros and cons of trying something and then free yourself to do it. If it doesn't work, take what you learn, and try something else. 

    Being Too "Serious"

    The persona of the fool allows the truth to be told, without the usual ramifications that might come with speaking against social conventions. Give yourself permission to be a fool and see things for what they really are.

    7 more ideas

    The genius

    Genius is too elusive and too subjective to be easily identified. It requires too many traits to be simplified.

    However, we can try to understand it by looking at intellige...

    Intelligence as a yardstick

    Lewis Terman, who helped pioneer the IQ test, tracked over 1,500 Californian schoolkids with IQs above 140, which is the near-genius or genius mark.

    40 after the study began, the researchers noted that a number of the study's participants struggled to thrive, despite their high IQ scores. Others tested for the study that did not have a high enough IQ, grew up to become renowned in their fields.

    Creativity and genius

    Creativity is a part of genius that can't really be measured, but that can be explained to a certain extent. One sign of creativity is being able to make connections between seemingly different concepts.

    The 'aha moment' that arises at unexpected times, like in a dream or the shower, often emerges after a period of contemplation. Information comes in consciously, but the problem is managed subconsciously, resulting in a solution when the mind least expects it.

    5 more ideas