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Appeal to privacy

In this fallacy, someone behaves in a way that negatively affects others but then gets upset when others criticize their behavior. They will reply with a "mind your own business."
For instance, someone who doesn't see a reason to bathe, but then boards a full 10-hour flight.



A fallacy is the use of faulty reasoning in an argument.

There are formal and informal fallacies:

  • A formal fallacy describes a flaw in the construction of a deductive argument.
  • An informal fallacy describes an error in reasoning.

It happens when someone continues in a course of action, even if evidence shows that it's a mistake.

Common phrase: "We've always done it this way, so we'll keep doing it this way." "I've already invested so much..."

If-by-whiskey is a fallacy named after a speech given in 1952 by Noah S. Sweat Jr. It is used to conceal a lack of a position or to dodge a tough question. 

If, by whiskey, you mean the brew that causes so many problems, then I'm against it. But if whiskey means the oil of conversation, the philosopher's wine, then I am certainly for it.

This fallacy involves arguing against a position because you think the ideas would start a chain reaction of bad things, even though you don't have evidence to support your claim.

Common phrase: "If we do that, then what's next?"

This fallacy argues for a specific position because there are no other realistic alternatives.
Common phrase: "What else are we going to do?"

This is a common fallacious rhetorical strategy that is difficult to spot.

It occurs when someone's claim is threatened with counter-evidence. They then come up with a rationale to dismiss the counter-evidence in the hope to protect their original claim.

In this fallacy, when someone doesn't have a strong argument, they will sprout irrelevant facts, numbers, anecdotes and other information to confuse the issue.

This fallacy occurs when decisions are made based on observations or quantitative criteria while ignoring other factors.
Common phrase: "You can't measure that, so it's not important."

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It happens when there are two or more opposing positions on a certain topic, and you assume that the truth must rest somewhere in the middle. False balance can be a result of a false equivalence when two sides are presented as being equal, and the terms are used interchangeably, even though they are not.

For instance, in a group interview, equal weight is given to the opinions of two opposing interviewees, one of whom is an established expert, and the other a false authority with no valid credentials.



This logical fallacy occurs when one’s own assumptions are used to establish their argument and prove it to be true.

Also called circular reasoning, this fallacy leads the person to follow the logic because a certain logic (which may be subjective or even entirely false) is already established.

Name-calling, attacking a person’s character and using someone’s beliefs or traits to call their argument into question.

For example, you can’t say that someone’s argument about dogs being better than cats is weak because they are also a Republican. It offers no real support to your argument for cats being better and it makes it look like you can’t think of anything better than poking at their personal beliefs.