Branches of psychology - Deepstash

Branches of psychology

The main difference between the cross-cultural psychology and the other branches of psychology refers to the fact that cross-cultural psychology analyses the effects of culture on human behavior, whereas the other types of psychology focus more on how people themselves influence the human behavior.

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MORE IDEAS FROM Psychology Explains How Cultural Differences Influence Human Behavior

Cross-cultural psychology

Cross-cultural psychology is defined as a branch of psychology that analyses the effects of cultural factors on human behavior.

For instance, while some cultures play a great importance on individualism, others choose collectivism as being more important.

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The main topics in cross-cultural psychology are the following:

  • Emotions
  • Language acquisition
  • Child development
  • Personality
  • Social behavior
  • Family and social relationships/

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The term 'culture' can be defined as the characteristics of a group of people, from attitudes to values, transmitted from generation to generation.

The cross-cultural psychology studies, by means of etic or emic approach, the way culture influences our life as a whole or the idea of ethnocentrism, which so often leads to biases.

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The first important role cross-cultural psychology has is to rectify most of the biases that people have in the field.

Furthermore, this branch of the psychology is used to understand the influence that cultural differences have on people's perception of each other.

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Basic Emotions

There are many different types of emotions that have an influence on how we live and interact with others. 

The choices we make, the actions we take, and the perceptions we have are all influenced by the emotions we are experiencing at any given moment.

During the 1970's, pyschologist Paul Eckman identified six bacis emotions that he suggested were universally experienced in all human cultures.

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Personality Psychology: Important Terminology
  • Classical conditioning: A behavioural technique where a natural stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus. The previously neutral stimulus eventually cause the response without pairing it to the natural stimulus.
  • Operant conditioning: A behaviour training technique where punishments or reinforcements influence behaviour.
  • Unconscious: The container for feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories.
  • Id: The personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy used to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires.
  • Ego: The unconscious part of the personality that moderates the id's demands, the superego, and reality.
  • Superego: The part of personality composed of our internalised ideals that comes from our parents and society.

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Social Psychology: Conformity

People are socially influenced by others, and change their behaviours in order to get along or fit in with the people around them. This involves agreeing with the majority, acting like everyone in a group, or behaving in a certain way to appear normal or ‘with it’ by the peers.

Conformity is basically yielding to group pressure, like when you go to watch a movie with office colleagues and do not like it at all, but may conform to the group by pretending to like it.

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