Attention. To learn, we need to be able to focus on some aspects while ignoring or excluding others. For example, reading this paragraph while ignoring the noise around you.
Memory. Knowing how memory works and how you can make learning more efficient can increase your performance. Science-based techniques include interleaving and chunking.
Executive control. Being able to plan, to create a sequence of steps, and to retain important information for short periods. While most happens in the prefrontal cortex, lots of research is needed to understand how executive control works.
Social behaviour. Social Neuroscience is aiming to understand how our biology affects our social behaviours.
Neurodiversity. Conditions such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), dyscalculia (difficulty with arithmetical calculations), and dyslexia impact learning. Neuroeducation aims to understand how these conditions best adapt to the learning environment.
Next time you experience a tip-of-the-tongue state, don't retrieve the information from memory. Instead, look up the correct answer. Repeat it a few times or write it down to help with encoding.
People that experience the tip-of-the-tongue state often suffer from incorrect practice time. Instead of learning the correct work, they are learning the mistake itself. For example, some music students who claim to practice diligently can get worse over time. This is because they keep on repeating the same mistakes, instead of using deliberate practice. They actually train themselves to make mistakes.
Whether it is the stress that is taken by schoolchildren or workplace challenges, we have to find an optimal level where there is just the right amount of pressure. There is a balance that has to be achieved for stress levels (which comes from external factors) and anxiety (which is usually through our internal thought mechanisms).
Stress to some extent is beneficial as it releases hormones like cortisol in the brain, increasing your performance in the short term while enhancing brain functions.