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**The most simple form of begging the question**: *A is true because A is true.*

**Circular reasoning can also be a bit longer:**

*A is true because B is true, and B is true because A is true.**A is true because B is true, and B is true because C is true. C is correct because A is true.*

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*"The law says you should drive on the right side of the road, and the law is the law."*

When someone is questioning this statement, they are questioning the law. If we say, "because that is the law," we are begging the question. We are assuming the validity of w...

**Begging the question** is an example of a fallacy of presumption, also known as a circular argument: The conclusion appears at the beginning and the end of the argument. *A is true because A is true.*

*A valid argument in support of a claim will of...*

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**Premise 1**: I can’t explain or imagine how proposition X can be true.

**Premise 2**: if a certain proposition is true, then I must be able to explain or imagine how that can be.

**Conclusions**: proposition X is false.

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**A fallacy is the use of faulty reasoning in an argument.**

There are formal and informal fallacies:

*A formal fallacy describes a flaw in the construction of a deductive argument.**An informal fallacy describes an error in reasoning.*

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**Carl Sagan **(November 9, 1934–December 20, 1996) was many things — a cosmic sage, voracious reader,

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Necessary cognitive fortification against propaganda, pseudoscience, and general falsehood. A brilliant read and a humbling read.

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