Carl Jung made a name for himself

  • Jung worked with Eugen Bleuler, the doctor who invented the word "schizophrenia."
  • Jung developed the word association test of Francis Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin.
  • Jung had an electric personality. At university, he gave public talks. Women flocked to him before and after each of his lectures. Then a woman became his patient and, so rumored, his lover.
  • Patients developing powerful feelings for their therapist was then new. Freud thought this transference was unhelpful. Later he thought it was the cornerstone of psychodynamic therapy.
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At university, Jung proved to be a brilliant student, graduating in medicine and natural science.

His doctorate was on "the psychology and pathology of so-called occult phenomena." Here he laid the foundations for two key ideas:

  • The unconscious contains part-personalities, called complexes.
  • Most of the work of personality development is done at the unconscious level.
What Carl Jung is known for

Carl Jung introduced the theory of personality types. You have used some of Jung's ideas if you think of yourself as introvert or extrovert; if you have ever used the Myers-Briggs personality or spirituality test.

Two ideas central to his theory: the ego and the self.

  • The Swiss psychologist was born in 1875 and died in 1961. His father was a village pastor. His mother was a strong figure though she seems to have had a split personality.
  • Jung's childhood was troubled and he developed a schizoid personality, becoming withdrawn and aloof. He thought he had two personalities and named them No. 1 and No. 2. Later he renamed his personalities ego and the self.

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Personality Psychology: Important Terminology
  • Classical conditioning: A behavioural technique where a natural stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus. The previously neutral stimulus eventually cause the response without pairing it to the natural stimulus.
  • Operant conditioning: A behaviour training technique where punishments or reinforcements influence behaviour.
  • Unconscious: The container for feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories.
  • Id: The personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy used to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires.
  • Ego: The unconscious part of the personality that moderates the id's demands, the superego, and reality.
  • Superego: The part of personality composed of our internalised ideals that comes from our parents and society.

What Personality Theories in Psychology May Tell You About Yours

verywellmind.com

Archetypes In Jungian Psychology

Introduced by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, archetypes represent universal patterns and visuals that form the collective unconsciousness.

He identified four main archetypes: The Persona, The Shadow, The Animus, and The Self. These archetypes are not inferred directly, but by looking at religion, dreams, literature and art. The archetypes suggested by Carl Jung are universal, hereditary and play a significant role in our personality.

The 4 Major Jungian Archetypes

verywellmind.com

Between Life And Death

The mysteries of death, the existence of the soul and the reincarnation of souls in different bodies are assumed to be ghost stories by the scientific community.

Near-Death Experience (NDE) is a phenomenon that lies in between life and death and is documented by various doctors. Many people on the verge of death have had vivid other-worldly experiences and spiritual visions that cannot be dismissed as dreams.

What do near-death experiences mean, and why do they fascinate us?

theguardian.com

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