Doubt is necessary for philosophy
Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-55) believed that in order to practice philosophy, you have to doubt everything.
His belief in thinking for oneself is noticed throughout his pseudonymous works. In writing under aliases, he lessened the sense that an authority wrote the books.
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Søren Kierkegaard was influenced by Socrates, who thought that his task was not to discover the truth and then communicate it to his students, but to open the question to the pupils and ensure they stay open.
The last thing you should do is turn to an authority to tell you what you should think. You have to do that for yourself.
The knowledge of our thoughts can be effortless and instantaneous. Other times, our thoughts are obscure and we must work hard to gain clarity.
Trying to understand the process of turning thought into speech can illuminate the deeper challenges we face in articulation. It can transform our relation to our own thoughts, and help us develop our ideas in other areas.
Psychohistory is a fictional way to predict the future of humanity, using mathematical techniques.
Applying maths on human behaviour was initiated by Adolphe Quételet in the 19th century, and is in a way the father of ‘big data’ and other statistical analysis that is prevalent today. He called psychohistory ‘social physics’.
Wonder is said to be a childish emotion. However, as adults, we experience it when gaping at something unexpectedly spectacular.
Adam Smith, an 18th-century moral philosopher, describes wonder as something new and singular that is presented, and memory cannot find any image that nearly resembles this unique appearance.
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