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Ad Hominem

A common argument tactic online, Ad hominem is when instead of giving a response to the argument, the person is attacked in a personal way, leading to the focus being the kind of person he or she is, rather than the actual content of the (now forgotten) argument.

The Ad Hominem fallacy is can be observed during political debates: candidates routinely utilize it to their advantage and launch personal attacks on opponents.

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Logic is fundamental to most of humanity’s knowledge, but there are common fallacies in logic and reasoning, errors of judgement which happen due to:

  1. Our assumptions based on what we see and deduct around us.
  2. The mistaken thinking that logic is always intuitive.

If two incidents or things happen at around the same time does not mean that one thing is the result of the other. Often many things occur at the same time yet are completely unrelated.

A correlation of data, like:

1) Increase in social media usage, and

2) I...

This logical fallacy occurs when one’s own assumptions are used to establish their argument and prove it to be true.

Also called circular reasoning, this fallacy leads the person to follow the logic because a certain logic (which may be subjective or even entirely false) i...

When a logical argument is not going anywhere, one party can sometimes try to win brownie points by appealing to an outside authority, the majority, or even towards feelings of pity.

Outside influences are a powerful force of nature in these hyper-social times, and most of...

“You are either with us or against us!” Oversimplification of options, due to selectively providing a limited set of options and not encompassing other potential options creates a false dichotomy.

Example: Either your name is Ron or your name isn’t Ron...

While engaging in an argument or debate, red herrings are certain statements or points that seem relevant to the core issue but are merely distractions. Red herrings themselves can be logical fallacies due to the factor of correlation and causation.

Example: W...

The Slippery Slope fallacy is a mistaken belief that one relatively mild unaddressed problem or allowance will automatically lead to other negative consequences.

The mind races on to the next negative consequence like a downward spiral, creating fear and a...

Many arguments are distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented, sometimes beyond recognition, to mean something else that can be easily attacked.

This is called the “straw man” fallacy because, like replacing a real person with a person made of straw, you’re replacing a stronger argument with...

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15Logical Fallacies You Should Know Before Getting Into a Debate

Need help prepping for an argument, or just want to double check your philosophy homework? Here you'll find 15 of the most common logical fallacies.

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A fallacy is the use of faulty reasoning in an argument.

There are formal and informal fallacies:

  • A formal fallacy describes a flaw in the construction of a deductive argument.
  • An informal fallacy describes an error in reasoning.

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A straw man argument is a misrepresentation of an opinion or viewpoint, designed to be as easy as possible to contradict.

The only purpose is for it to be easy to expose. It’s not an argument you happen to find inconvenient or challenging. It’s one that is logically flawed...

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