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What Is Ultraviolet Light? | Live Science

Fluorescence

Substances like minerals, plants, fungi, microbes, and organic and inorganic chemicals, can absorb UV radiation, causing electrons to jump to a higher energy level. When the electrons return to a lower energy level, they emit a portion of the absorbed energy as visible light.

  • Fluorescence is used for signs, safety vests, and other applications in which high visibility is important.
  • In fluorescent tubes, an electric current is passed through mercury vapour, producing ultraviolet radiation along with a blue light.

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My Red Is Your Blue

About 1 per cent of American men suffer from red-green colour blindness.

Recent experiments challenge the accepted notion that all of us have the same default perception o...

The Calculations Of Light
  • The colour-sensitive receptors that humans have, called melanopsin, measure the amount of blue or yellow light in the atmosphere and likewise regulate our circadian rhythm.
  • Human beings have Cone Cells, which are of three types, Red, Blue, and Green, and have evolved much later than the receptors in the brain.
Colour Is A Private Sensation
  • Research proves that the universal emotional responses that we have when we see a colour tend to be the same, even if the actual colour is different, as our conscious perception of those colours varies.
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Misophonia
Misophonia

Misophonia is characterized by strong negative emotions such as anger and anxiety in response to everyday sounds other people make. These sounds include humming, chewing, t...

Misophonia and brain particularities

Scientists do not fully understand misophonia but suspect it's caused by the way some people's brains process particular sounds and react to them.

Some studies found that the brains of people with misophonia showed hyperactivation of the salience network, a group of brain areas that direct our attention to important things in our surroundings. Trigger sounds send the salience network into an overdrive. Researchers found these brain areas are structurally more robust in people with misophonia.

Calming a misophonic brain

There's a lot of similarity between people who experience misophonia, but also a lot of diversity.

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The history of refrigeration
The history of refrigeration

Refrigeration is the action of creating cooling conditions by removing heat. It is used for preserving food by slowing bacteria growth.

  • Around 1000BC, the Chinese u...
Evaporative cooling
  • 1720s. Scottish doctor William Cullen saw that evaporation had a cooling effect.
  • 1748. Cullen demonstrated his ideas by evaporating ethyl ether in a vacuum.
  • 1805. Oliver Evans designed a refrigeration machine that used vapor instead of liquid.
  • 1820. English scientist Micahel Faraday used liquefied ammonia for cooling.
  • 1835. Jacob Perkins, who worked with Evans, patented a vapor-compression cycle using liquid ammonia.
  • 1842. John Gorrie, an American doctor, built a machine similar to Evans's design to artificially create ice and cool down patients with yellow fever.
  • New and improved refrigeration ideas continued to be developed, including Albert Einstein's idea of an environmentally friendly refrigerator with no moving parts that did not rely on electricity.
  • By 1920, refrigerators were considered essential in American homes.
How refrigerators work

Refrigerators today work by evaporating liquids.

The liquids are pushed through the refrigerator through tubes and begin to vaporize. As the liquids evaporate, they carry heat away with them as the gases travel to a coil outside the refrigerator. Here the heat is released. The gases return to a compressor, where they become liquid again, restarting the cycle.