The discovery of equinoxes
Ancient civilizations have noticed solar changes because they've been watching and keeping track of the sun's movements not only for a hundred years but for thousands of years.
With this, their discovery of equinoxes have been a part of their culture, their plantation season - since solar changes dictate the beginning of seasons which helps aid when to plant and harvest crops and their religious traditions.
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There are many monuments that mark the equinoxes such as the Mayan Temple in Chichen, Itza in Mexico. This temple is also known as the Temple of Kukulcan and was dedicated to a serpent god.
Another monument is the Hindu Temple Complex Angkor Wat in Cambodia wherein the sun rises directly above its central temple. It's one of the largest religious monuments in the world as was built between AD 1113 and 1150.
In layman's terms, the equinox happens because the planet earth is not tilted towards the sun while the sun is directly above the equator. This causes the equinox to happen.
So during this time of the year, both hemispheres get the same hours of daylight and night.
On a usual basis, the earth is tilted as it orbits around the sun, about 23.5 degrees. This tilt causes the difference in how much of the sun's radiation we receive at various times of the year.
The earth's year is not a consistent 365 days, often there is an extra quarter of a day that accumulates each year which causes the date of the equinox to shift.
Nevertheless, the equinox usually happens to mark the astronomical beginning of spring or autumn, but the meteorological beginning of these seasons are March 1st and September 1st.
This 2021, the spring equinox is bound to happen on March 20th, and the fall equinox to happen on September 22nd.
Mars was named by the ancient Romans for their god of war because its reddish color was reminiscent of blood.
Other civilizations also named the planet for this attribute; for example, the Egyptians called it "Her Desher," meaning "the red one." Even today, it is frequently called the "Red Planet" because iron minerals in the Martian dirt oxidize, or rust, causing the surface to look red.
The magnetic fields of the sun distort and twist as the Earth rotates on its axis. When these fields become knotted together, they create sunspots. Usually, these sunspots occur in pairs.
As the temperature on the surface of the sun rises and falls, the sun boils and bubbles. Particles escape from the sun from the sunspot regions on the surface, throwing particles of plasma, known as solar wind, into space. These winds take about 40 hours to reach Earth, causing the magical displays.
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