Sins of commission involve distorted recollection

  • Misattribution. This sin is the correct recollection of information but connected to the wrong source. We may even think we are the source or may recall events that never happened.
  • Suggestibility. Our memory is vulnerable to misinformation caused by leading questions or deception from other people. This can lead to false memories.
  • Bias. Our current beliefs or feelings can retrospectively distort our memory.
  • Persistence. We want to forget, but our brain wants to hold on to the memory—for example, trauma, a mistake or an embarrassing moment.
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Self Improvement


Memories are often unreliable

Our memory is part of what makes us human. But it's far from perfect.

Psychologists are investigating the seven categories of memory. Three involve forgetting, and four involve a faulty memory. As with many cognitive biases, the first step is awareness.

Strategies to mitigate some of the most harmful effects of memory biases:

  • Get information soon after an event, when everyone still remembers it.
  • Use a prioritised task list.
  • Take notes from important events, such as meetings.
  • Record important events and milestones daily.
  • Use neutral questions when requesting information.
  • Pay attention to the perspective of the person providing the information.
  • Notice the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • Transience. This sin involves forgetting over time. Studies found that nearly 50% of participants had significant errors in their memory of the O.J. Simpson trial verdict after three years.
  • Absent-mindedness. We have lapses of attention. We forget where we left an object or what we were planning to do.
  • Blocking. We experience the tip-of-the-tongue syndrome. This happens when the brain tries to retrieve information, but another memory interferes.

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Negative Capability

Intellectual certainty can limit our creativity. Where lies a certain path, many alternative doors leading to innovative ideas are ignored. In contrast, negative capability is the art of embracing intellectual uncertainty.

Negative capability is about uncertainty, mystery, and doubt, as opposed to “fixed” and “enforced” conceptions of the world. Negative capability encourages us to keep an open mind and always consider the possibility that we may be wrong. Negative capability goes hand in hand with continuous learning, discouraging arrogance, and encouraging personal growth. 


The belief that societies continue to decline is often linked with rosy retrospection - believing that the past was better and the future more negative.

Declinism can cloud your judgement and steer you toward bad decisions.

Ordinary and altered states of consciousness

Altered states of consciousness can only be defined if there is an understanding of an ordinary state of consciousness.

While scientists can't agree on a clear definition, altered states of consciousness are nevertheless essential to understanding the human mind.

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