People that develop expertise in multiple areas are able to solve a wide range of problems.
The key is to gain broadly valuable skills:
MORE IDEAS FROM The Science Behind Building General Skills | Scott H Young
Thorndike's replacement theory was not correct. He was wrong in thinking that only the superficial elements of a task needed to match.
An idea, as an abstract concept, can influence your thinking more on a broader range of problems than only memorising some steps in a procedure.
Learning ideas are useful to a point. To make a general idea useful, some key obstacles need to be overcome:
Ideas help, but it is just the start. Easy ideas in a field may be the only visible tip of deeper knowledge.
Earlier theories of the mind - like the formal discipline theory - assumed that things like reason, language and attention were like muscles and that any activity strengthened them. It led to views that learning Latin and geometry was essential even though few students would use these skills.
Edward Thorndike disproved this theory in 1901. He formed a new theory known as the identical elements theory, which suggested that two problems must share common elements for one skill to apply to another.
General skills not only help you with a narrow problem but can be used repeatedly to solve other problems.
But building general skills can be challenging because it is built from many specific ones. If you're prepared to do the work, you can find better ways to learn that can make breadth possible.
Formal discipline theory led to views that learning Latin and geometry were important, even if few students would use these skills in their lives, because by their formal character they acted as the ideal dumbbells for mental strength training.
Training on one task didn’t help much with training on dissimilar tasks. Identical elements theory suggested that in order for training in one skill to apply to another, the two problems must share common elements.
If you can be exposed to a fact, idea or procedure multiple times, you’ll retain it far longer than if you experience it only once.
Consider at what speed you should try to do things in order to improve performance.
We can often learn something quickly, but without attaining a master level (like getting good at estimating answers to math problems. While you might get within close proximity, you'll seldom get to the exact answer.)
Learning to do something with precision will require a different technique and can take much longer to master.
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