The nervous system

The nervous system

  • It is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring.
  • Structurally, the nervous system has two components: the central nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and nerves) and the peripheral nervous system (sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system).
  • Functionally, the nervous system has two main subdivisions: the somatic, or voluntary, component (nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort).
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  • Nerves are cylindrical bundles of fibers that start at the brain and central cord and branch out to every other part of the body.
  • Neurons send signals to other cells through thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals known as neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses.
  • A synapse gives a command to the cell and the entire communication process typically takes only a fraction of a millisecond. Signals travel along an alpha motor neuron in the spinal cord 268 mph (431 km/h); the fastest transmission in the human body, according to Discover magazine.

Patients with nerve disorders experience functional difficulties, which result in conditions such as:

  • Epilepsy, in which abnormal electrical discharges from brain cells cause seizures
  • Parkinson's disease, which is a progressive nerve disease that affects movement
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the protective lining of the nerves is attacked by the body's immune system
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a motor neuron disease which weakens the muscles and progressively hampers physical function
  • Huntington's disease, which is an inherited condition that cause the nerve cells in the brain to degenerate
  • Alzheimer's disease, which covers a wide range of disorders that impacts mental functions, particularly memory.
  • Stroke, which occurs when there is bleeding on the brain or the blow flow to the brain is obstructed;
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA), which are mini-type strokes that last a shorter period of time but mimic stroke symptoms; and
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is specifically bleeding in the space between your brain and the surrounding membrane that can be the result of a trauma or rupturing of a weak blood vessel;

Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess can also affect the nervous system, the NIH noted.

Of all the diseases of the nervous system, the most common difficulty that people have is pain, and much of that is nerve-related.

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RELATED IDEAS

  1. The central nervous system (CNS). It includes the brain and spinal cord.
  2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS). It includes all the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord and extends to other parts of the body, including muscles and organs.
Why it takes time for our muscles to strengthen

Strength training is more physiologically intricate than initially realised. When we start to lift weights, our muscles are not the first to strengthen and change. However, our nervous systems do.

When we lift weights, we might feel some initial disappointment when our muscles do not quickly take shape. But weight training soon causes us to generate more muscular force where we can push, pull, and raise more weight than before, even though our muscles still look the same.

Neuroscience and Neuroscientists

Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions. They study the nervous system's cellular, functional, behavioural, evolutionary, computational, molecular, cellular, and medical aspects.

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science. It works closely with mathematics, linguistics, engineering, computer science, chemistry, philosophy, psychology, and medicine.

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