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Nihilism means "nothing." It is the lack of belief in meaning or substance in an area of philosophy.
Nietzsche was not a nihilist but wrote about the dangers posed by this philosophy.
Existentialism originates from Soren Kierkegaard and Nietzche. It focuses on the problems produced by existential nihilism. For instance:
Existentialism emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice.
Stoicism was popular in ancient Greece and Rome and is practiced by many in high-stress environments.
Stoicism focuses on how to live in a world where things don't go as planned. The idea is to accept all the things beyond your control and to focus on what you can control.
Hedonism is the idea that pleasure and happiness are the keys to a good life. Modern philosophers would say that pleasure is a kind of happiness, but not the only happiness.
Epicurus tied hedonism to a virtue ethics system based around moderation and self-discipline.
Marxism is based on the collected ideas of Karl Marx, the German philosopher. He critiqued capitalism. Main ideas:
Famous Marxists include Lenin, Stalin, Mao, and Slavoj Zizek.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to the perspective. This idea can be applied to morality or truth, where some argue that there are no moral facts or absolute truths.
Cultural relativism is the idea that the morality of two different cultures cannot be compared.
Buddhism is based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha. Although Buddhism has a diverse range of thought, it is bound together by the idea that suffering has a cause.
Buddhism believe suffering can be overcome by: meditation, following the eightfold path and contemplation of sutras.
SIMILAR ARTICLES & IDEAS:
When most people think of philosophy, they believe philosophers simply argue about arguing. Philosophy is viewed as impractical and irrelevant to current issues.
"Science is what you know. Philosophy is what you don’t know."
Philosophy is examining our understanding of reality and knowledge. Philosophy consists of three major branches:
When you order your thoughts into a coherent belief system, you are engaging in philosophy. To criticize philosophy, you must rely on philosophy.
Far too many people spend 80% of their waking hours slogging away at a desk and view any break from this routine as a naughty deviation from duties.
Workism, where people worship their work, ...
Many people cannot choose a reasonable work schedule:
This widespread workaholism, in part, reflects the misguided notion that having fun is somehow an over-indulgence.
Many people across the world take six weeks of vacation a year and still manage to produce functioning companies and political systems.
Working more than 55 hours a week produces diminishing returns of productivity.
It cannot be acquired by pleasurable experiences but only by identifying and realizing our own potential, moral and creative, in our specific environments, with our particular family, friends and colleagues, and helping others to do so.