While the other oceans are defined by the continents that fence them in, the Southern Ocean is defined by a current: the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which surrounds it.
The ACC flows from west to east around Antarctica. Inside the ACC, the waters are colder and slightly less salty than ocean waters to the north.
Furthermore, the ACC helps keep Antarctica cold and the Southern Ocean ecologically distinct, with thousands of species living only there.
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The ACC is estimated to have been established 34 million years ago, when Antarctica separated from South America.
The ACC has a crucial impact on Earth’s climate: it transports more water than any other ocean current, helping drive a global circulation system known as the conveyor belt, which transports heat around the planet.
The Southern Ocean has a few characteristics that make it stand out from the other 4 oceans:
Since National Geographic began making maps in 1915, it has recognized four oceans: the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic Oceans. Starting on the World Oceans Day 2021 (June 8) it has also recognized the Southern Ocean as the world’s fifth ocean.
It has long been recognized by scientists, but the lack of an international agreement kept the editors from formally adding it to the list.
In the age of misinformation and disinformation, we’re (hopefully) all getting a little better about fact-checking—or at least, about not automatically believing every last thing we read or hear on the internet. But there are some fundamental truths we were taught as kids that, it turns out, were never true. Or they seemed true at one point but now we have more information and fresh facts that demote them to “myth” status.
From the very land and water of Earth, to the planetary bodies, to some supposedly basic history we’re remembering wrong, here are a few things it’s time to relearn.
The most obvious effect can be seen in the ocean tides. The Earth's rotation causes the Moon's gravity to pull the water on the closest side of Earth towards it, creating a bulge. The centrifugal force caused by the Earth's rotation makes the sea bulge on the other side too. These bulges of water are high tides.
Every 18.6 years, there is a lunar nodal cycle, where the lunar plane tilts away from the equatorial plane, causing tides to grow smaller. When the Moon's orbit is more in line with the Earth equator, the tides are bigger.
Recreational and exploratory travel has two main motivations; travel for 'change' for new experiences, leading to inner transformation, and travel to 'show', which revolves around displaying your experiences to others.
Exploratory travel, seeking out unknown, exotic and unexplored places, has its mental equivalent in philosophy, which is also about exploring the unknown, internally.
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