Ideas from books, articles & podcasts.
There is only one way of making progress: conjecture (guesses) and criticism. We create theories by rearranging, combining, altering and adding to existing ideas with the intention of improving upon them. The role of experiment and observation is to choose between existing theories, not to be the source of new ones.
Experience is indeed essential to science, but it's not the source from which theories are derived. Its main use is to choose between theories that have already been guessed.
MORE IDEAS FROM THE SAME BOOK
Science is not about prediction. But explanations. Predictions are used to validate new explanations.
Enlightenment represents a way of pursuing knowledge with a tradition of criticism and seeking good explanations instead of reliance on authority. Enlightenment's quintessential idea is that progress is both desirable and attainable.
Problems are conflicts between explanations or theories. Expectations are theories too.
2 interpretations of human progress inspired 2 broad branches of the Enlightenment:
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