Are ideas that replicate.
The world’s major cultures – including nations, languages, philosophical and artistic movements, social traditions and religions – have been created incrementally over hundreds or even thousands of years. Most of the ideas that define them, including the inexplicit ones, have a long history of being passed from one person to another. That makes these ideas memes – ideas that are replicators.
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Enlightenment represents a way of pursuing knowledge with a tradition of criticism and seeking good explanations instead of reliance on authority. Enlightenment's quintessential idea is that progress is both desirable and attainable.
The Enlightenment was a revolution in how people sought knowledge: by trying not to rely on authority. Mainly Religion. That is the context in which empiricism – purporting to rely solely on the senses for knowledge – played such a salutary historical role, despite being fundamentally false and even authoritative in its conception of how science works.
We want true explanations. So we seek explanations that remain robust when we test them against those flickers and shadows, and against each other, and against criteria of logic and reasonableness and everything else we can think of. And when we can change them no more, we have understood some objective truth. And, as if that were not enough, what we understand we then control. It is like magic, only real. We are like gods!
2 interpretations of human progress inspired 2 broad branches of the Enlightenment:
The Continental type was impatient for the perfected state – which led to intellectual dogmatism, political violence & tyranny - The French Revolution & the Reign of Terror are the archetypal examples.
The British one, which was evolutionary & cognizant of human fallibility, was impatient for institutions that did not stifle gradual, continuing change.
Is the possibility of the unlimited growth of knowledge in the future.
David Deutsch, a renouned phisicist, postulates that Knowledge consists of explanations (assertions about what is out there beyond the appearances). For most of the history , we had almost no success in creating such knowledge.
Deutsch’s worldview is that reality is comprehensible. Problems are solvable. Progress is inevitable as long as we have good explanations.
All of these are intitively right, and some even sound scientific. But they are not.
There is only one way of making progress: conjecture (guesses) and criticism. We create theories by rearranging, combining, altering and adding to existing ideas with the intention of improving upon them. The role of experiment and observation is to choose between existing theories, not to be the source of new ones.
Experience is indeed essential to science, but it's not the source from which theories are derived. Its main use is to choose between theories that have already been guessed.
Science is not about prediction. But explanations. Predictions are used to validate new explanations.
A culture is a set of ideas that cause their holders to behave alike in some ways. By ‘ideas’ I mean any information that can be stored in people’s brains and can affect their behaviour.
Problems are conflicts between explanations or theories. Expectations are theories too.
Solving a problem means creating an explanation that does not have the conflict.
Since theories can contradict each other, but there are no contradictions in reality, every problem signals that our knowledge must be flawed or inadequate.
We know about atoms because of scientists and electron microscopes, but the idea goes back to the ancient Greeks.
Democritus first articulated the idea of atoms. He argued that it must exist. If we continually halved something, there would be no endpoint. Therefore, there must be a fundamental unit to the world from which everything else is made.
Things that have not happened -- but could happen -- are the things that constitute the world of counterfactuals, a neglected area of scientific theory.
A luminous guide to how the radical new science of counterfactuals can reveal the full scope of our universe. There is a vast class of properties, which science has so far neglected, that relate not only to what is true the actual but to what could be true: the counterfactual. This is the science of can and can't.
At first, office layouts were influenced by the production or factory line. Rows of desks fitted tightly together, but managers and executives had private offices with windows so they could supervise workers.
In the 1950s, the workplace design style became less rigid. The emphasis was placed on meeting the needs of the workforce with a more fluid design. It resulted in a more social environment where collaboration between teams increased.
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