Sleep apnea is another condition that can have... - Deepstash
<ul><li>Sleep apnea is another...
  • Sleep apnea is another condition that can have negative effects on health and safety. People who have Sleep Apnea stop breathing many times during a night’s sleep, and each time they stop breathing, they wake up briefly and gasp for air. This prevents them from getting enough deep sleep, which leads to irritability and sleepiness during the day. Chronic sleep apnea can also result in high blood pressure.

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MORE IDEAS FROM States of Consciousness

Sleep Deprivation

Different people need different amounts of sleep. Some people can function with fewer than six hours of sleep a night, while others can’t manage without at least nine hours. Research shows that getting insufficient sleep can have negative effects on health, etc.

Experiment subjects who are intentionally deprived of REM sleep tend to enter the REM stage of sleep more and more frequently during the night. After an REM-deprivation experiment has ended, subjects usually experience a REM Rebound effect, spending more time in the REM stage on subsequent nights to make up for lost REM time.

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Sleep Research

Sleep research has provided a lot of information about what happens to the brain and body during sleep. Researchers study sleep by monitoring subjects who spend the night in labs, and they use various instruments for different purposes:

  1. Electroencephalographs(EEGs): record brain waves
  2. Electromyographs(EMGs): record muscle activity
  3. Electrooculographs(EOGs): record eye movements
  4. Electrocardiographs(EKGs): record the activity of the heart

Other instruments monitor breathing, body temperature, and pulse.

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Jet Lag

Jet lag is the fatigue and disorientation air travelers feel after a long flight. Although traveling itself drains energy, the time change also contributes to fatigue. People experience jet lag when the events in their environment are out of sync with their biological clocks.

EXAMPLE: A traveler leaves NYC at eight in the morning and arrives in London about seven hours later. For her, it’s three in the afternoon, but because of the time change, in London it’s eight in the evening. Her body, thinking it’s mid-afternoon, will be confused by the lack of sunlight, and she’ll experience jet lag.

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Stages 1 To 4
  • When people are relaxed and ready to fall asleep, their EEG will show mostly alpha waves. When people fall asleep, they enter into stage 1 sleep, which lasts just a few minutes. In stage 1, the EEG shows mostly theta waves. Heart rate, breathing rate, and body temperature drop, and muscles relax. Fantasies or bizarre images may float around in the mind.
  • After a few minutes of stage 1 sleep, people move into stage 2 sleep. Stage 2 lasts about twenty minutes and is characterized by short bursts of brain waves called Sleep Spindles.

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REM Sleep
  • At the end of stage 4, people go back through the stages in reverse, from stage 4 to 3 to 2 to 1. When they reach stage 1, instead of waking up, people go into REM, or rapid eye movement, sleep. A single cycle might look like this: ' 123432REM '
  • REM sleep is a stage of deep sleep in which, paradoxically, brain wave activity resembles that of an alert person. REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep.

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Sleepwalking

Most people in stage 4 sleep are still, quiet, and difficult to rouse. Sleepwalkers, however, sometimes become physically active during stage 4. They may get up and walk around their room or even carry on a conversation, take a bath, cook, or go outside and get in their car. Because they are in a deep sleep, most sleepwalkers remember nothing of their actions when they wake up.

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3 Types Of Biological Rhythms
  1. Circadian Rhythms: biological cycles that occur about every twenty-four hours. Sleep follows a circadian rhythm. Hormone secretion, blood pressure, body temperature, and urine production also have circadian rhythms.
  2. Infradian Rhythms: biological cycles that take longer than twenty-four hours. For example, women’s menstrual cycles occur about every twenty-eight days.
  3. Ultradian Rhythms: biological cycles that occur more than once a day. Sleep follows an ultradian rhythm of about ninety minutes as well as a circadian rhythm. Alertness and hormone levels also follow ultradian rhythms.

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A DEEP DIVE INTO SLEEPING

Sleep is just one of many types of consciousness we experience, and sleep itself comprises several states of consciousness. Even when we’re sleeping, our brains and bodies continue to work.

Sleep is affected by biological rhythms or periodic physiological changes. Biological rhythms are regular, periodic changes in a body’s functioning. There are three types of biological rhythms.

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Biological Clocks

Endogenous rhythms exist because the body has biological clocks that keep time. Biological clocks can be adjusted by environmental cues, such as changes in temperature.

In humans, the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) is the main biological clock that regulates circadian rhythms of sleep. The SCN lies in the brain’s hypothalamus. When light stimulates receptors in the retina of the eye, the receptors send signals to the SCN. The SCN then sends signals to the nearby Pineal Gland, which secretes Melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep cycle.

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Aging and Sleep

Sleep patterns change as people get older. Newborn babies spend about two-thirds of their time in sleep. As people age, they tend to sleep less. The amount of time spent in REM sleep also changes over time. In very young babies, about half of all sleep is REM sleep. As babies get older, the proportion of REM sleep decreases.

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Sleep Stages

During one night’s sleep, people pass through several cycles of sleep, each lasting about ninety to one hundred minutes. There are five distinct stages of sleep in each cycle: 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM.

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Endogenous

Biological rhythms usually synchronize with environmental events such as changes in daylight. However, experiments have shown that many biological rhythms continue to have the same cycle even without cues from the environment. Such biological rhythms are Endogenous, which means that they originate from inside the body rather than depend on outside cues.

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The Function Of Sleep

Although everyone sleeps, no one really knows why people sleep. Researchers have proposed several theories to explain how sleep evolved to be a necessary behavior:

  1. People conserve energy by sleeping periodically.
  2. Sleep has a protective function, as it keeps people tucked away at night, safe from predators.
  3. Sleep restores body tissues that are depleted during daily activities.

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Sleep Disorders
  • Everyone has occasional difficulty sleeping, but some people have Insomnia, a chronic problem with falling or staying asleep. Another kind of sleep disorder is Narcolepsy, which is a tendency to fall asleep periodically during the day. Narcolepsy can be dangerous, as people who experience it may fall asleep while driving or operating machinery.

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RELATED IDEA

The Ultradian Rhythm

It is a biological cycle that lasts less than a day and happens in alternating periods of high and low frequencies of brain activity. Some researchers argue that it involves the balance of sodium/potassium in our system.

The brain works harder than any other organ and when we work harder than the usual what and tends to happen is that there will be a disruption to the balance of sodium/potassium and makes your brain call for a break. We also lose the ability to focus and concentrate when tired.

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Our Internal Biological Clock
  • If we want to get more out of each day, we might need to consider synchronizing with our own internal body clock, working according to our peak periods of creativity, energy and activity.
  • Our biological clock controls most of our body’s functions, like the circadian rhythms that manage the sleep and wake cycles.
  • People working in shifts, for example, are thrown off their natural clocks, and experience fatigue, jet lag or sleep disturbances.

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The Circadian Rhythm
  • The circadian rhythm is what we call our body's masterclock. It is the timekeeper of the body which keeps the cells in our body running smoothly, helps fights against chronic diseases and assists us into having a peaceful night of sleep.
  • Our circadian rhythm is dependent on our daily routines and diet that keeps us mindful of our health.
  • Our masterclock can be found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus. It is what controls the functioning of each bodily process.

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