4. Grover’s Algorithm
Lov Grover created this algorithm to solve the problem of an unstructured search. It can find the unique input to a black box function that produces a particular output value, using just O(sqrt N) evaluation of the function, N being the function’s domain.
In other words, let's say we had a shuffled deck of cards and were tasked with finding 1 specific card. The classical algorithm would solve this by going through all the cards in the deck one by one, or N evaluations. On the other hand, Grover’s algorithm would only require O(sqrt N) evaluation to do the same job.
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