Consequently, to be wrong less when thinking about people, you must find ways to increase your empathy, opening up a deeper understanding of what other people are really thinking.
In any conflict between two people, there are two sides to the story. Then there is the third story, the story that a third, impartial observer would recount.
Forcing yourself to think as an impartial observer can help you in any conflict situation, including difficult business negotiations and personal disagreements.
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Thinking about a problem from an inverse perspective can unlock new solutions and strategies.
The central mental model to help you become a chef with your thinking is arguing from first principles. It’s the practical starting point to being wrong less, and it means thinking...
If you’re trying to be as objective as possible when making a decision or solving a problem, you always want to account for your frame of reference. A frame-of-reference mental trap is framing.
Framing refers to the way you present a situation or explanation. You will of c...
Nudging: You can be nudged in a direction by a subtle word choice or other environmental cues.
Anchoring: The tendency to rely too heavily on first impressions when making decisions.
Availability bias: This occurs when a bias, or dist...
You may also succumb to holding on to incorrect beliefs because of disconfirmation bias, where you impose a stronger burden of proof on the ideas you don’t want to believe.
The pernicious effects of confirmation bias and related models can be explained by cognitive dissonance
In any situation where you can spot spillover effects (like a polluting factory), look for an externality (like bad health effects) lurking nearby.
Fixing it will require intervention either by fiat (like government regulation) or by setting up a marketplace system according to the Coase t...
Thinking Gray: You may think about issues in terms of black and white, but the truth is somewhere in between, a shade of gray. A truly effective leader, however, needs to be able to see the shades of gray inherent in a situation in order to make wise decisions as to how to procee...
Most respectful interpretation(MRI): In any situation, you can explain a person’s behavior in many ways. MRI asks you to interpret the other parties’ actions in the most respectful way possible.
Hanlon’s razor invites you to never attribute to malice that which is adequately explained by ca...
Ockham’s razor advises that the simplest explanation is most likely to be true. Look at your explanation of a situation, break it down into its constituent assumptions, and for each one, ask yourself: Does this assumption really need to be here? What evidence do I have that it should remain? Is i...
The veil of ignorance holds that when thinking about how society should be organized, we should do so by imagining ourselves ignorant of our particular place in the world, as if there were a veil preventing us from knowing who we are.
The human tendency to gather and interpret new informati...
If you can coherently articulate other points of view, even those directly in conflict with your own, then you will be less likely to make biased or incorrect judgments.
Leadership is unlocking people’s potential to become better.
Adopt an experimental mindset, looking for opportunities to run experiments and apply the scientific method wherever possible.
Respect inertia: create or join healthy flywheels; avoid strategy taxes and trying to enact change in high-inertia situations unless you have a tactical advantage s...
When arguing from first principles, you are deliberately starting from scratch. You are explicitly avoiding the potential trap of conventional wisdom, which could turn out to be wrong.
To be wrong less, you need to test your assumptions in the real world, a process known as de-risking. The...
People are not interchangeable. They come from a variety of backgrounds and with a varied set of personalities, strengths, and goals. To be the best manager, you must manage the person, accounting for each individual’s unique set of characteristics and current challenges.
Craft unique roles...
I am a sucker for gadgets, stubborn and curious. Eating right and sleeping well is important to me.
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