The Three P’s

The three cognitive distortions (3P’s) that need to be changed:

  • Personalization: Optimists tend to externalize any failure, rather than taking it personally or blaming themselves.
  • Pervasiveness: While pessimists tend to close the doors after facing a setback, optimists see negative events as temporary and bounce back.
  • Permanence: A negative situation is often viewed as lasting or unchangeable by pessimists while optimists understand that things are flexible, and changeable.

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