The Antikythera Mechanism is the word's oldest surviving mechanical calculator. The device was discovered in an ancient shipwreck in 1900 and dates between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC.
When manually rotated by a handle, the gears span dials on the exterior showing the Moon's phases, the timing of lunar eclipses, and the positions of the five planets then known (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) at different times of the year.
Human history is often framed as a series of episodes, representing sudden bursts of knowledge. The Agricultural Revolution, the Renaissance, and the Industrial Revolution are just a few examples of historical periods where it is generally thought that innovation moved more rapidly than at other points in history, leading to huge and sudden shake-ups in science, literature, technology, and philosophy.
During the Renaissance, there was a renewed interest in the arts and literature. It led to a shift toward more independent thinking.
In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther promoted his thoughts by printing and distributing them, encouraging churchgoers to read the Bible for themselves. This led to the Protestant Reformation.
In the process, the criticism and reform led to placing the burden of proof ahead in understanding the natural world, paving the way for the scientific revolution.
When scientists view the Martian surface, they see branching streams, river valleys, basins, and deltas, suggesting that the planet may have once had a vast ocean covering its northern hemisphere. It was likely wrapped in a thick atmosphere able to maintain liquid water.
But somehow, the planet went through a dramatic transformation. Exploring Mars can help scientists learn about climate change that can alter planets. Learning more about Mars may equip us to someday make a living there.
Asteroids are what's left after the formation of our solar system from billions of years ago.
It is believed that the reason why they were formed were because of the birth of Jupiter. Its birth hindered any planetary bodies to form in the space between Mars and Jupiter, which resulted to the small objects that were present to crash onto each other and fragment themselves.
The two theories that back this up are the Nice model and the Grand Tack.