Jumping to conclusions is a phenomenon where people reach a conclusion prematurely, on the basis of insufficient information. For example, a person jumping to conclusions might assume that someone they just met is angry at them, simply because that person wasn't smiling at them while they talked, even though there are many alternative explanations for that behavior.
Mind reading. By watching the behaviour and nonverbal communication, we assume we know how someone feels, even when there are other potential explanations.
Fortune telling. We predict an outcome without having enough evidence. For example, we don't even try to enter a competition because we don't think we will win. These kinds of expectations can prevent us from taking action.
Labelling. We overgeneralise by labelling all the members of a group with the characteristics seen in a few.
At the core of cognitive behavioural theory is the idea that our thoughts can act as a block that prevents us seeing events or ourselves in a positive light. Instead, we distort reality and foster negative beliefs about our situation. However, once identified, these negative beliefs can be challenged.