General intelligence - Deepstash

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How Different Psychologists Have Evaluated Intelligence

General intelligence

Charles Spearman (British psychologist, 1863–1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the "g factor". He utilized the method named 'factor analysis' to investigate a few mental ability tests; his conclusion was that the results and scores on these tests were very similar:

People who did well on one cognitive test usually performed well on other tests, while those who performed badly on one test usually scored badly on others. Spearman concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed.

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Learning theories

Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how learning takes place.

The major theories of learning are the following: 

  • behaviorist theories 
  • co...
Behaviorism theories

The behaviorist perspectives of learning originated in the early 1900s. The main idea of behaviorism is that learning consists of a change in behavior because of obtaining, strengthening and applying associations between input from the world, and observations of the individual.

  • Learning is reinforced by exercise and repetition, followed by a positive reward.
  • Learning takes place when the right parts of more complex behavior are rewarded.
Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology started in the late 1950s and contributed to the move away from behaviorism.

  • Instead of viewing people as collections of responses to external stimuli, people are viewed as information processors.
  • Cognitive psychology was influenced by the computer that processes information, that became analogous to the human mind.
  • Cognitive psychology understands learning as absorbing knowledge, acting on it, and storing it in memory.
  • The main teaching methods are lecturing and reading textbooks, where the learner receives knowledge passively.