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How Different Psychologists Have Evaluated Intelligence

https://www.verywellmind.com/theories-of-intelligence-2795035

verywellmind.com

How Different Psychologists Have Evaluated Intelligence
Learn about the various theories of intelligence since many psychologists don't agree on a standard definition.

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There is no standard definition of intelligence

There is no standard definition of intelligence

Present approaches suggest that intelligence means having the capacity to:

  • Learn from experience: this relates to the acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge.
  • Identify problems: to use your knowledge, you should have the ability to identify possible problems that need to be approached and solved.
  • Solve problems: you need to be able to use what you have learned to come up with a proper solution to the problems you have identified.

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History of the IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

  • The term IQ was first formulated in the early 20th century by William Stern (a German psychologist).
  • Psychologist Alfred Binet developed the first intelligence tests to help the French government identify kids who needed extra academic help.
  • Although widely used, there continues to be debate and controversy over the use of such testing, cultural biases that may be involved, influences on intelligence, and even the very way we define intelligence.

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General intelligence

Charles Spearman (British psychologist, 1863–1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the "g factor". He utilized the method named 'factor analysis' to investigate a few mental ability tests; his conclusion was that the results and scores on these tests were very similar:

People who did well on one cognitive test usually performed well on other tests, while those who performed badly on one test usually scored badly on others. Spearman concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed.

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Primary mental abilities

Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) didn't approach intelligence as a single, general ability; his theory focused on seven different primary mental abilities:

  • Associative memory: The capacity to memorize and recollect.
  • Numerical ability: The capacity to solve arithmetic problems.
  • Perceptual speed: The capacity to see differences and similarities among objects.
  • Reasoning: The capacity to find rules.
  • Spatial visualization: The capacity to visualize relationships.
  • Verbal comprehension: The capacity to define and understand words
  • Word fluency: The capacity to produce words rapidly.

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Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

  • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: the capacity to control your body and handle objects skillfully.
  • Interpersonal intelligence: the capacity to find and respond in the right way to the moods, motivations, and desires of other people.
  • Intrapersonal intelligence: the capacity to be self-aware and aligned with your inner feelings, values, beliefs, and thinking processes.
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence: the capacity think conceptually and abstractly, and the capacity to discern logically or numerical patterns.
  • Musical intelligence: the capacity to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre.
  • Naturalistic intelligence: the capacity to know and categorize animals, plants, and other objects in nature.
  • Verbal-linguistic intelligence: the capaity to have developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings, and rhythms of words.
  • Visual-spatial intelligence: the capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly.

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The triarchic theory of intelligence

Robert Sternberg (American psychologist) proposed the concept "successful intelligence; this concept involves three different factors:

  • Analytical intelligence:the ability to evaluate information and solve problems.
  • Creative intelligence: the ability to come up with new ideas.
  • Practical intelligence: the ability to adapt to a changing environment.

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SIMILAR ARTICLES & IDEAS:

When Psychology Became A Separate Scientific Discipline

When Psychology Became A Separate Scientific Discipline

When psychology developed as a science that was separate from biology and philosophy, they did not know how to describe the human mind and behaviour.

Different schools of psychology...

Psychology: Early Schools of Thought

  • Structuralism was the first school of thought and focused on breaking down mental processes into their most basic elements using techniques such as introspection. Major thinkers are Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener.
  • Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of structuralism and focused on the role that the mental processes play instead of the mental processes themselves. Thinkers associated with this outlook include John Dewey, James Rowland Angell, and Harvey Carr.

Gestalt Psychology

  • This school of psychology is based on the idea that we experience things as unified wholes.
  • The approach started in the late 19th century in response to the molecular approach of structuralism.
  • Instead of breaking down thoughts and behaviour to their smallest parts, the gestalt psychologists believed you should view the whole of experience.

4 more ideas

Emotional Intelligence( EQ/EI)

Is the measure of an individual’s abilities to recognise and manage their emotions, and the emotions of other people, both individually and in groups.

Benefits of a higher EQ

  • Ease in forming and maintaining interpersonal relationships and in ‘fitting in’ to group situations.
  • A better understanding one's own psychological state, which can include managing stress effectively and being less likely to suffer from depression.

IQ and EQ

There is no correlation between IQ and EQ scores.

IQ has no connection with how people understand and deal with their emotions and the emotions of others (EQ). 

You simply can’t predict emotional intelligence based on how smart someone is.

Learning theories

Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how learning takes place.

The major theories of learning are the following: 

  • behaviorist theories 
  • co...

Behaviorism theories

The behaviorist perspectives of learning originated in the early 1900s. The main idea of behaviorism is that learning consists of a change in behavior because of obtaining, strengthening and applying associations between input from the world, and observations of the individual.

  • Learning is reinforced by exercise and repetition, followed by a positive reward.
  • Learning takes place when the right parts of more complex behavior are rewarded.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology started in the late 1950s and contributed to the move away from behaviorism.

  • Instead of viewing people as collections of responses to external stimuli, people are viewed as information processors.
  • Cognitive psychology was influenced by the computer that processes information, that became analogous to the human mind.
  • Cognitive psychology understands learning as absorbing knowledge, acting on it, and storing it in memory.
  • The main teaching methods are lecturing and reading textbooks, where the learner receives knowledge passively.