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The four personal value orientations

There are four different personal value orientations based on our "terminal values " - our desirable states of existence, and "instrumental values" - the means by which we achieve our end goals.

  1. Personal-competence. "I value wisdom (terminal), which I believe can be achieved through independent thinking (instrumental)."
  2. Personal-moral: "I valued true friendship (terminal), which I believe can be achieved through honesty (instrumental)."
  3. Social-competence: "I valued equality (terminal), which I think can be achieved through ambitious work (instrumental)."
  4. Social-moral: "I value national security (terminal), which I believe can be achieved through obedience (instrumental)."

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Discovering your personal values

  • A way to discover your personal values is to write a short personal essay about the values of the people you admire and how they align with your own values.
  • A second strategy is to pick six to eight values from a list such as adventure, bravery, compassion, creativity, family, free...

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Good and bad values

A practical framework shared by Mark Mason is that good values are evidence-based, constructive, and controllable. This framework includes intellectual curiosity, creativity, humility, honesty, vulnerability, standing up for others and oneself.

Bad...

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The transmission of values

Personal values can be ethical, moral, ideological, social, or even aesthetic. Values are mostly transmitted through parenting, but our cultural environment also plays a role.

For instance, American parents tend to value intellectual knowledge; Swedish parents value s...

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Our values

Our values

Our values are our preferences about what we consider appropriate courses of actions.

They strongly influence our decisions. Therefore we should take the time to consider what our personal values are.

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Shaping your personal values

Your values will not be fixed; they change throughout your life. While this process happens naturally, you can proactively decide to shape your values.

  • Confront your values to actual experiences. When you notice that you live differently to your valu...

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The transmission of values

Personal values can be ethical, moral, ideological, social, or even aesthetic. Values are mostly transmitted through parenting, but our cultural environment also plays a role.

For instance, American parents tend to value intellectual knowledge; Swedish parents value s...

The Value Fulfillment Theory: Values Are Personal

The Value Fulfillment theory assumes that most people have different values, but are the same at a universal level. Human nature can be simplified by taking the most common values and perspectives on what a good life should be.

Individuals struggle, and through their perso...

Contradicting the belief in the morally true self

  • If we believe in a morally good true self, it does not explain political strife, hate crimes and online nastiness. A possible explanation can be that our definition of "morally good" is based on our own values, which can vary.
  • Thinking that others have a moral good true self doesn'...

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