Gut microbiota - Deepstash

Gut microbiota

Gut microbiota has a major role to play in the health and function of the GI tract, with evidence that conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often coincide with altered microbiota. But it also plays a much wider role in our health, and this is largely determined in the first few years of life.

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MORE IDEAS FROM What we do and don't know about gut health

The brain and gut have a strong, two-way communication system Each are essential to the other – studies have found that brain development is abnormal in the absence of the gut microbiome. Gut microbes can produce most of the neurotransmitters found in the human brain, including serotonin, which plays a key role in regulating mood.

 However, research hasn’t yet figured out which exact gut bacterium are crucial for brain development.

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Antibiotics and gut health

Antibiotics can dramatically alter our gut microbiota. Many of the genes thought to be fixed in certain bacterial environments can start spreading by overuse of antibiotics, which can put pressure on the resistant genes locked up inside a single bacterial cell, causing them to mobilise.

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Probiotics

There has been a lot of hype around the health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics in recent years, but while they're increasingly used in treatments including inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, several reviews suggest there needs to be further research on which strains and dosages are effective. Recent studies have found some people are even immune to probiotics.

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Western vs. Mediterranean diet

Western diet, typically high in animal fat and protein and low in fibre, increases the risk of cancer. The Mediterranean diet is high in fibre and low in red meat and has been likened with anti-inflammatory effects and an improved immune system.

This leads us to the conclusion that gut health, favoured by fibre, is a reason for longevity of people following the Mediterranean diet.

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You are a Superorganism

We have always thought of ourselves as an organism. New studies point towards us being Superorganisms, with many organisms teaming up to become what we define as 'us'.

There are trillions of bacteria, virii, and fungi in our stomach, skin, and tissues, and they are collectively known as your Microbiome.

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The brain and the gut are linked and in constant communication, and about 100 million nerve cells reside in the gut.

Gut bacteria produce dopamine and similar neurotransmitters that are critical for mood, anxiety, concentration, and motivation, explaining why stomach disorders upset our mood and emotions.

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What you eat affects your mind

Modern science suggests that the gut may play a role in mood disorders and our mental health.

The gut is covered in nerve cells, or neurons, which are foundational to our brains. This network in our gut is known as the enteric nervous system or "second brain".

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