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Self Improvement

105 STASHED IDEAS

In the 30s and the 40s, Disney movies had artists and animators manually working on sketches and colouring. Drawings were redrawn with every changing movement, with originally created colours mixed and put on the animated characters, creating authentic effects.

Some movies, like Sleeping Beauty, required nearly a million drawings, followed by a tedious colouring process.

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Self Improvement

101 Dalmatians: 1961 Animated Movie

In 101 Dalmatians, Disney’s animation department pioneered the Xerox technology developed in the 1940s, completely changing the animation process and reducing the manual labour work consisting of hours of tedious redrawing by animators.

Xeroxing copied the drawings on transparent celluloid sheets, instead of having the artists redraw them thousands of times.

  • Xeroxing mechanised the tracing process, leading to some deterioration from the movies made manually. The outlines were harsher, and it was met with a mixed response initially, before getting fine-tuned.
  • Artists felt that with each manual tracing, the drawing loses some of its life, and xeroxing retains the firmness of the art.
  • The Movie 101 Dalmatians could be really hard to make without xeroxing, as animating a hundred puppies manually would have taken forever!

There is a theory that Nefertiti was Tutankhamun's mother and that they ruled together, but she was a female pharaoh on her own before Tutankhamun came into his own.

If Nefertiti was the Younger Lady found in tomb KV35, then she died a horrible death. It appears she received a heavy blow to the face, smashing many bones that possibly resulted in a massive loss of blood. Death would have occurred quickly.

  • Sobekneferu, the daughter of King Amenemhet III, became the first female pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian Dynasty as he did not have any sons.
  • In the 18th Dynasty, a woman called Hatshepsut was the regent for the young King Thutmose III. Seven years into his reign, she promoted herself to female pharaoh and ruled alongside him.
  • Some centuries after Nefertiti, a lady called Tausret carries on ruling as a female pharaoh when the young king suddenly dies.
Facts about Nefertiti, the wife of pharaoh Akhenaten

Nefertiti is a most recognised figure from ancient Egypt thanks to the 1912 discovery of her remarkable bust.

  • She was the wife of pharaoh Akhenaten and was possibly a first cousin of the king.
  • During her period as Akhenaten's wife, she was depicted smiting Egypt's enemies, something unique to her.
  • Nefertiti survived her husband as a fully-fledged female pharaoh.
Meeting The Future Queen
  • Philip and Elizabeth first met in 1934, when he was 13 and she was 8.
  • Five years later, the pair crossed paths again: As Elizabeth’s cousin recalled in her autobiography, the princess “was truly in love from the very beginning.”
  • The couple wed in 1947, embarking on a 74-year partnership that would cement Philip’s status as the United Kingdom’s longest-serving royal consort.
  • The BBC began filming its “Royal Family” documentary in June 1968. Philip oversaw the process and sought to ensure the royals were presented in a humanizing light.
  • Though the documentary has strong viewership, Buckingham Palace decided to stop its broadcast without the queen’s permission, because it revealed the royals to be a pretty normal British upper-class family - the monarchy began to lose the aura of grandeur that distance conveyed.
  • Over the following decades, as the royal couple’s children navigated much-publicized divorces, this sense of demystification was exacerbated even more.
  • Prince Philip also faced criticism and continued to make headlines for his offensive comments, many of which played on racial stereotypes, and brought much unwanted attention to the royal family.
Broadcasting The Coronation Of The Queen
  • A commission chaired by Prince Philip proposed broadcasting the 1953 investiture ceremony that formally named Elizabeth II as queen on live television.
  • Even if Prime Minister Winston Churchill expressed clear disapproval, the queen came around to the idea, allowing the broadcast of all but one segment of the coronation.
  • More than 20 million people tuned in to the televised ceremony.

The years after the coronation of Queen Elisabeth II the royals continued to embrace television as a way of connecting with the British people:

  • In 1957, the queen delivered her annual Christmas address during a live broadcast.
  • Four years later, in 1961, Philip became the first family member to sit for a television interview.
  • Toward the end of the decade, the Windsors even invited cameras into their home, offering the BBC the opportunity to film a behind-the-scenes documentary.

Much of this push for transparency can be traced back to Prince Philip, whose unconventional upbringing inspired him to modernize the monarchy.

Prince Philip's Start In Life

Born on the Greek island of Corfu in June 1921, Philip was the great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria and nephew of Constantine I of Greece, whose 1922 abdication forced the young infant and his family to flee their home country. 

Philip spent stretches of time in France, England and Germany, and was notably scarred by tragedies, including the institutionalization of his mother and death of his beloved older sister in a plane crash.

Queen Elizabeth II

“He is someone who doesn’t take easily to compliments but he has, quite simply, been my strength and stay all these years, and I … owe him a debt greater than he would ever claim or we shall ever know.”

biographer Sally Bedell Smith

"By the ’80s, he [Prince Philip] had written nine books. He was the first person in the royal family to use television. He did a television documentary. He persuaded the Queen in 1957 to televise her annual Christmas message. And he even taught her how to use a teleprompter. He was the first member of the royal family to use a computer … He picked up the phone, but also wrote all his own emails. He wrote his speeches. He was a man of searching intellect, great curiosity."

Prince Philip

'Being married to the queen, it seemed to me, my first duty was to serve her in the best way I could.''

B.F. Skinner
  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner is known for his work on operant conditioning - it is a form of behavior modification that helps elaborate and alter certain behaviors.
  • He is also famously known for his experimentation using a condition chamber or commonly known as the "Skinner Box". The Skinner Box led to the formation of theories about ideal reward reinforcement schedules.
William James
  • He earned his medical degree at Harvard University back in 1869 but never practiced medicine;
  • He taught at Harvard in 1873 for physiology and was the first to offer the course "physiological psychology";
  • He is popularly known for his number of theories such as: theory of the self, the James-Lange theory of emotion, pragmatic theory of truth, and the two-stage model of free will;
  • Also contributed significantly to the philosophy of religion
Mary Whiton Calkins
  • Widely known for her research about the self;
  • She understood the importance of self-psychology and that it should be a part of scientific research;
  • Despite her contribution to Harvard, the university did not confer degrees to women during that time;
  • She has published four books and more than 100 articles in psychology and philosophy;
  • She was also elected president of the APA and she also established her own psychology lab in the United States.
Wilhelm Wundt
  • He was the first founder of the psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig which marked the official beginning of psychology as an independent science;
  • Has many beliefs and theories but was heavily misunderstood by some due to the language barrier. His student, Edward Bradford Titchener propagated many misconceptions about his works.
Sigmund Freud
  • He is well-known as the "father of psychoanalytic theory";
  • He has contributed tremendously to psychoanalysis in the late 1890s because of his deep-rooted fascination to the study of the mind;
  • Due to the increasing number of his following in the early 1900s, it resulted to the meeting of the first International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1908.
Alfred Binet
  • He was a French psychologist who partially contributed to the formation of IQ test - the objective measurement for intelligence;
  • He studied physiology after getting his law degree in 1878, then worked at a neurological clinic in Paris in 1880s, then pursued a long term career in research and became a director of the Sorbonne; and
  • Has published over 200 books and articles on diverse subject matters;
Ivan Pavlov
  • In contrast to what people think, Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who quit priesthood to pursue science;
  • Famously known for his theory of classical conditioning - where an external stimuli can have direct influence in a behavioral response;
  • He won a Nobel prize for his work.
Harry Harlow
  • He studied the behavior of monkeys in a laboratory environment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison;
  • His researched proved his hypothesis that "human infants needed similar contact from their mothers" correct when baby monkeys showed that they needed more than mere sustenance to thrive. They needed contact comfort.
  • His contribution continues to be an influential breakthrough in parenting styles up to date.
Edward Thorndike
  • Recognized for his contributions in psychometrics;
  • His work was focused on the development of the field of educational psychology - this is the branch that focuses on studying how people take in knowledge in order to further develop educational materials and approaches for teaching;
  • He is also known for his puzzle box experiments with animals.

The Apollo mission brought back rock and soil from the Moon. It showed that the Earth and Moon share chemical and isotopic similarities, suggesting a linked history.

The minerals on the Moon contain less water than similar terrestrial rocks. The Moon has material that forms quickly at a high temperature.

The giant-impact model suggests that, in the Earth's early history, the proto-Earth and Theia (a Mars-sized planet) collided and reformed as one body. A small part of the new mass spun off to become the Moon.

Some suggest that early Earth and Theia came from the same neighbourhood as the solar system was forming and were made of similar materials.

If you look at the lunar surface, it seems pale grey with dark splodges.

The pale grey is a rock named anorthosite. It forms as molten rock cools down. The dark areas are another rock type called basalt. Basalt is the most common surface on all inner planets in our solar system and can be found on the ocean floor.

Theories on how the Moon formed

Before the Apollo mission research, there were three theories about how the Moon formed.

  1. Capture theory suggests that the Moon was a wandering body that was captured by Earth's gravity as it passed nearby.
  2. Accretion theory suggests that the Moon was created along with Earth at its formation.
  3. The fission scenario proposes that the Earth spun so fast that some material broke away and began to orbit the planet.

Today, the giant-impact theory is widely accepted. It proposes that Earth and a small planet collided. The debris from this impact collected in orbit around Earth to form the Moon.

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