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Black Friday Definition

https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blackfriday.asp

investopedia.com

Black Friday Definition

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Black Friday has two relevant meanings

Black Friday has two relevant meanings
  • In history, Black Friday was a stock market disaster that happened on September 24, 1869, when, after a period of uncontrolled speculation, the price of gold crashed, and the markets crashed.
  • The contemporary meaning refers to the day after the U.S. Thanksgiving holiday, which has been a holiday itself for many employees. It is known as a day full of shopping deals and heavy discounts and is considered the beginning of the holiday shopping season.

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Black Friday and retail spending

  • Retailers may spend an entire year planning their Black Friday sales. They use this event as their chance to offer special prices on overstock inventory and discounts on seasonal items, such as typical holiday gifts.
  • Retailers also offer significant discounts on top-selling brands of TVs, smart devices, and other electronics, tempting customers in the hope that, once inside, they will purchase higher-margin goods.
  • Consumers often shop on Black Friday for the hottest trending items, which can lead to stampedes and violence in the absence of adequate security.

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"In the Black"

There is a theory stating that, when it comes to "Black Friday", the term "black" refers to being profitable, which comes from the old bookkeeping practice of recording profits in black ink and losses in red ink.

Retail businesses should be able to sell enough on this Friday (and the ensuing weekend) to put themselves "in the black” for the rest of the year.

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The origins of Black Friday

The term was made-up by the overworked Philadelphia police officers.

  • In the 1950s, crowds of shoppers and travelers flooded Philadelphia the day after Thanksgiving.
  • Philadelphia stores hosted major sales that day, but the city also hosted the Army-Navy football game on Saturday of the same weekend.
  • Because of the crowds, traffic cops were required to work 12-hour shifts, and they were not allowed to take the day off.
  • Over time, the annoyed and fatigued officers started to refer to this dreaded workday as "Black Friday."
  • The term became popular and spread to store salespeople who used "Black Friday” to describe the long lines and general chaos they had to deal with on that day.

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How Black Friday evolved

  • Black Friday become the shopping phenomenon event it is today in the 2000s when Black Friday was officially designated the biggest shopping day of the year.
  • Until then, that title had gone to the Saturday before Christmas.
  • Today, Black Friday is becoming an increasingly lengthy event: a Black Weekend

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Cyber Monday competition

  • For online stores, a similar tradition to Black Friday has arisen on the Monday following Thanksgiving. Cyber Monday is seen as the unofficial start of the online holiday shopping season.
  • The idea is that consumers return to work after the Thanksgiving holiday weekend, ready to start shopping.
  • Online shops often promote their sales prior to the actual day in order to compete against the Black Friday offerings at brick-and-mortar stores.
  • In terms of sales, Cyber Monday has proven to be a success among shoppers.

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The economic significance of Black Friday

  • The sales registered on Black Friday are frequently seen as a litmus test for the overall economic situation of the country and a way for economists to assess the confidence of the average American.
  • Those who follow the Keynesian hypothesis​ that spending drives economic activity view lower Black Friday sales figures as a harbinger of slower growth.
  • Some investors and analysts look at Black Friday numbers as a way to gaugemeasure the overall health of the entire retail industry.
  • Others suggest that it only causes very short-term gains or losses.

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SIMILAR ARTICLES & IDEAS:

Why Black Friday Is So Popular

Why Black Friday Is So Popular

Black Friday is the conventional starting day for the holiday shopping season.

Historically, it’s also been the best day to find great deals on the year’s hottest toys, gam...

The 20th Century: The Parade of Sponsors

  • In the middle of the 20th century, Thanksgiving parades drew crowds in most major cities and in some of the smaller towns too. Many were sponsored by local or national retailers. Back in the day, that meant mostly department stores.
  • By attaching their names to the most visible events on the preholiday calendar, department stores reminded their customers that they were open for business in the coming holiday shopping season.
  • Over time, Thanksgiving parades came to mark the unofficial start of that season.

The Modern Holiday Shopping Calendar

  • Thanksgiving fell on the last Thursday of November since 1863 until 1939, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved Thanksgiving to the fourth Thursday of November (starting with 1941), influenced by the request of a powerful coalition of retailers.
  • When Thanksgiving fell on November 30, it left only 24 holiday shopping days and this worried retailers who reasoned that busy holiday shoppers would simply shop less in a shorter season.
  • They promoted the idea that a longer holiday shopping season would be good for the American economy.

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The wholesome story of Black Friday

The wholesome story of Black Friday

The wholesome story of Black Friday is that happy shoppers would flood local shops and malls the day after Thanksgiving, and the extra spending would put retailers "in the black" for the ...

The real origin of Black Friday

  • Before retail repackaged Black Friday, it had a more sinister meaning. The earliest use of the phrase Black Friday dates to 1869. It was the day gold prices plummeted and caused a market crash. The economic effects lasted for years.
  • Traffic police coined the phrase Black Friday around the 1950s in Philadelphia. It was used to describe the traffic jams and intense crowding of the downtown retail stores that occurred on the Friday after Thanksgiving day.
  • Local police were not the only ones who dreaded the day. The ratio of salespeople to customers added to the problem as sales associates frequently called in sick on this day to extend their Thanksgiving holiday weekend.

Adding a positive spin to Black Friday

Retailers wanted to put a positive spin on the gloomy term "Black Friday."

One well-known PR executive recommended adopting a positive approach that would convert Black Friday to Big Friday. The name didn't stick, but a positive spin on the day eventually paid off.

Market Value or OMV (Open Market Valuation)

OMV is the price an asset would get in the marketplace, or the value the investment community gives to particular equity or business.

Market value is also used to refer to ...

Understanding Market Value

A company's market value is a good indication of how investors perceive a business.

Market value is determined by the valuations or multiples accorded by investors to companies, including price-to-sales, price-to-earnings, enterprise value-to-EBITDA, etc. The higher the valuations, the bigger the market value.

The Dynamic Nature of Market Values

  • Market value is influenced by the business cycle and can fluctuate over periods of time. Market values decrease during recessions (bear markets) and rise during economic expansions (bull markets).
  • Market value also depends on the sector in which the company operates, its profitability, debt load, and the broad market environment.
  • Market value for a firm may be very different from book value or shareholders' equity. A stock will be considered undervalued if its market value is well below book value. It does not mean that a stock is overvalued if it is trading at a premium to book value - it again depends on the sector and the extent of the premium compared to the stock's peers.