How to Think
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We often make the mistake of thinking that people with high IQs think better. But it's not true. That's not the type of knowledge or brainpower that makes you better at life, happier, or more successful.
They are a representation of an external reality inside your head.
Mental models are concerned with understanding knowledge about the world, they put knowledge in a usable form.
When learning, we should focus on ideas that change slowly.
When we chase the latest thing, we’re really jumping into an arms race. Despite our intentions, learning in this way fails to take advantage of cumulative knowledge. We’re not adding, we’re only maintaining.
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Mental models are the various thinking frameworks that are used to understand life, make decisions, and solve problems.
Just raw intelligence is not enough to solve problems. A different or a...
A mental model is an explanation of how something works. They are beliefs, worldviews or frameworks of thinking. You carry a certain kind of thinking in you to arrive at a solution to a problem.
“Scientists generally agree that no theory is 100 percent correct. Thus, the real test of knowledge is not truth, but utility.”
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They are chunks of knowledge that can be simplified and applied to better understand the world, by identify what information is relevant in any given situation, and th...
... through everything you do. That's the power of compounding. If you get 1% better at understanding how the world works, how human behavior works, how economic systems function, and understanding your own brain — that 1% improvement impacts everything you do.
The best kind of knowledge is not ephemeral junk , that will be useless in a few years, but the core pillars of human knowledge and the major academic disciplines. That knowledge changes very slowly over time and it’s a core foundation that you can build upon and grow from.
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Is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
"… it's important to reason from first principles rather than by analogy. The normal way we conduct our lives is we reason by analogy. We are doing this because it's like something else that was done, or it is like what other people are doing. But with first principles, you boil things down to the most fundamental truths and then reason up from there."
“What Sherlock Holmes offers isn’t just a way of solving a crime. It is an entire way of thinking."
"Holmes provides... an education in improving our faculty of mindful thought...
As it does so, we become less and less able to know or notice our own thought habits and more and more allow our minds to dictate our judgments and decisions, instead of the other way around.
Daniel Kahneman believes there are two systems for organizing and filtering knowledge:
To move from a System Watson- to a System Holmes-governed thinking takes mindfulness plus motivation.
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If you’re waiting for someone to give you the right training to change your job or do something radically different in life you will wait forever.
It’s up to you to train yourself. I...
Learning is not a rigidly formal system of precisely labeled steps.
Learning is messy. It’s trial and error. It’s failing and then failing again and then slowly figuring it out.
You can’t borrow someone’s motivation. No matter how many books you read or chants you do you won’t become more motivated.
Motivation comes from inside. It comes from you and nowhere else.
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Many layers of uncertainty along with thinking errors of scientists (blind spots) make the research or evidence untrustworthy about 42 percent of the time, according to a study.
When we read scientific studies, it helps to keep in mind the following:
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This is just a fancy way to say what has been will continue to be.
Time can predict value. Some things, like books, increase in life expectancy as time goes by. If a book has been in print for forty years, we can expect it to be in print for another forty years.
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A few major decisions determine a good portion of how our lives, careers, and relationships turn out. The outcomes of these decision points will reverberate for years.
We live in a society that demands specialization. Being the best means being an expert in something. A byproduct of this niche focus is that it narrows the ways we think we can apply our knowledge without being called a fraud.
We should apply all the knowledge at our disposal to the problems and challenges we face every day.
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