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Most influential theories of learning

Multiple intelligences

Howard Gardner's theory challenges the understanding of intelligence as a single general ability. He argues that every person's level of intelligence actually consists of many distinct bits of intelligence, namely:

  1. logical-mathematical
  2. linguistic
  3. spatial
  4. musical
  5. bodily-kinesthetic
  6. interpersonal
  7. intrapersonal

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Most influential theories of learning

Most influential theories of learning

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/geqaf/annexes/technical-notes/most-influential-theories-learning

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Key Ideas

Learning theories

Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how learning takes place.

The major theories of learning are the following: 

  • behaviorist theories 
  • cognitive psychology 
  • constructivism
  • social constructivism 
  • experiential learning 
  • multiple intelligence
  • situated learning theory and community of practice.

Behaviorism theories

The behaviorist perspectives of learning originated in the early 1900s. The main idea of behaviorism is that learning consists of a change in behavior because of obtaining, strengthening and applying associations between input from the world, and observations of the individual.

  • Learning is reinforced by exercise and repetition, followed by a positive reward.
  • Learning takes place when the right parts of more complex behavior are rewarded.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology started in the late 1950s and contributed to the move away from behaviorism.

  • Instead of viewing people as collections of responses to external stimuli, people are viewed as information processors.
  • Cognitive psychology was influenced by the computer that processes information, that became analogous to the human mind.
  • Cognitive psychology understands learning as absorbing knowledge, acting on it, and storing it in memory.
  • The main teaching methods are lecturing and reading textbooks, where the learner receives knowledge passively.

Constructivism

Constructivism started in the 1970s and 1980s.

  • The idea is that learning is not passive, but that learners have to make sense of their world by interpreting information actively.
  • Earlier influential theorists include Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner.
  • The common thread is the learner-centered approach, where the teacher becomes a guide of the learner's learning instead of only passing on information.

Social learning theory

The theory of Albert Bandura suggests that people learn within a social context and that learning is the result of imitation and observation, which are processes involving attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.

Socio-constructivism

In the late 20th century, socio-constructivism highlighted the role of context, in particular social interaction.

The criticism against the information-processing constructivist approach to learning is that the mind is not isolated from the world around it. Knowledge is not sufficient if it does not interact and connect with the context it finds itself in. Learning then became known as "participation" and "social negotiation."

Experiential learning

It puts experience at the center of the learning process.
Carl Rogers is an influential proponent of these theories, suggesting that people have a natural inclination to learn, that they learn when they are fully involved in the learning process. He stated:

  • "Learning can only be facilitated: we cannot teach another person directly."
  • “learners become more rigid under threat”
  • “significant learning occurs in an environment where a threat to the learner is reduced to a minimum”
  • “learning is most likely to occur and to last when it is self-initiated.”

Situated learning theory

Situated learning theory recognizes that there is no learning which is not situated. Learning occurs most effectively within communities - e.g., cooperation, problem-solving, building trust, understanding, and relations.

Thomas Sergiovanni argues that academic and social outcomes will improve only when classrooms become learning communities, and teaching becomes learner-centered.

21st-century learning or skills

21st-century learning or skills result from the concern that learning should meet the new demands of the 21st century, which is knowledge and technologically driven. It encourages the development of core subject knowledge as well as new media literacies, critical and systems thinking, interpersonal, and self-directional skills.

One learning method that supports the learning of such skills and knowledge is group learning or thematic projects.

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Re-reading and highlighting

Both of these study strategies are relatively ineffective. Passively reading the same text over and over again won’t do much for recall unless it’s spaced out over time. 

Different learning styles

Systematic studies of learning styles have consistently found no evidence or very weak evidence to support the idea that matching the material to a student’s learning style is more effective.

Right or left-brained

There is no conclusive evidence that people preferentially use the left or right hemisphere.

Certain functions are processed more by one region of the brain than others, and this is known as lateralization. But we all use our entire brain equally.

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There is no standard definition of intelligence
There is no standard definition of intelligence

Present approaches suggest that intelligence means having the capacity to:

  • Learn from experience: this relates to the acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge.
History of the IQ (Intelligence Quotient)
  • The term IQ was first formulated in the early 20th century by William Stern (a German psychologist).
  • Psychologist Alfred Binet developed the first intelligence tests to help the French government identify kids who needed extra academic help.
  • Although widely used, there continues to be debate and controversy over the use of such testing, cultural biases that may be involved, influences on intelligence, and even the very way we define intelligence.
General intelligence

Charles Spearman (British psychologist, 1863–1945) described a concept he referred to as general intelligence or the "g factor". He utilized the method named 'factor analysis' to investigate a few mental ability tests; his conclusion was that the results and scores on these tests were very similar:

People who did well on one cognitive test usually performed well on other tests, while those who performed badly on one test usually scored badly on others. Spearman concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed.

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Thomas Oppong

"We all have enough brainpower to master a new discipline — we use the right tools, approaches, or apply what we l..."

Thomas Oppong
Reading and continuous learning

Reading is one of the best sources of continuous learning. It allows your mind to grow, change and make new connections.

Highly successful learners read a lot: Elon Musk grew up reading two books a day, according to his brother. Bill Gates reads 50 books per year. Mark Zuckerberg reads at least one book every two weeks. Warren Buffett spends five to six hours per day reading five newspapers and 500 pages of corporate reports.

Learning as a process 

Learning is a journey, not a destination. It's a process of self-discovery, fueled by curiosity.

Learning is an investment that usually pays for itself in increased earnings. And in a fast-changing world, the learning skills quickly is becoming a necessity.

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