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AHS is a 12-item measure of hope for people over 15 years of age.
Two sub-scales of the 12-item measure of hope are:
4 of the 12 items measure pathways thinking, 4 items measure agency thinking, and 4 items are fillers.
Hope is a positive cognitive state based on determination and planning to meet a goal successfully. It consists of three things:
According to psychologist Charles Snyder, hope is in the context of doing (the capacity to achieve goals), not in the realm of being.
With hope therapy, instead of dwelling on the unpleasant factors, it incorporates positive self-talking, thinking of the future in a more positive way, and connections with supportive networks.
Historically, psychology tried to treat mental illness by reducing negative symptoms. Positive psychology focuses on increasing well-being.
Hope interventions focus on improving happiness, well-being, and positive cognition.
It is very valuable for the following types:
HHI is developed to measure a total, non-time oriented sense of hope.
The Herth Hope Index consists of three dimensions:
The State Hope Scale was designed to assess an individual's momentary goal-directed thinking.
It has a 6 item self-report, and respondents have to rate items based on how they think about themselves. (from 1 - definitely false to 8 - definitely true.)
Research shows that during disasters, altruism and kindness happen more than greed and selfishness. To tide over the current crisis requires optimism along with caution.
Action and accomplishment is a requirement to improve our and other people's lives. We cannot wish away the current situation and need to take affirmative, organized action.
The planet needs us to fix itself, and we have plenty of work to do.
The "science of happiness" was born as a result of Martin Seligman's (the father of positive psychology) endeavour to approach psychology beyond the idea of restoring normality in individuals and to look at happiness and contentment as ways to not only restore normality, but also to prevent and protect as well as potentially cure.
Positive psychology has three main areas: Generation of both short and long term healthy pleasures, joy obtained through the connection with others and happiness that comes from a meaningful life.
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