Evidence of female pharaohs

  • Sobekneferu, the daughter of King Amenemhet III, became the first female pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian Dynasty as he did not have any sons.
  • In the 18th Dynasty, a woman called Hatshepsut was the regent for the young King Thutmose III. Seven years into his reign, she promoted herself to female pharaoh and ruled alongside him.
  • Some centuries after Nefertiti, a lady called Tausret carries on ruling as a female pharaoh when the young king suddenly dies.
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Facts about Nefertiti, the wife of pharaoh Akhenaten

Nefertiti is a most recognised figure from ancient Egypt thanks to the 1912 discovery of her remarkable bust.

  • She was the wife of pharaoh Akhenaten and was possibly a first cousin of the king.
  • During her period as Akhenaten's wife, she was depicted smiting Egypt's enemies, something unique to her.
  • Nefertiti survived her husband as a fully-fledged female pharaoh.

There is a theory that Nefertiti was Tutankhamun's mother and that they ruled together, but she was a female pharaoh on her own before Tutankhamun came into his own.

If Nefertiti was the Younger Lady found in tomb KV35, then she died a horrible death. It appears she received a heavy blow to the face, smashing many bones that possibly resulted in a massive loss of blood. Death would have occurred quickly.

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Early European chess players changed the game

Early European chess players turned the chess game to reflect their society's political structure.

  • Originally, chess was a game of war. Horsemen, elephant-riding fighters, charioteers and infantry protected the "shah" and his counsellor, the "firz."
  • But Europeans changed the "shah" to a king, the "vizier" to queen, the "elephants" to bishops, the "horses" to knights, the "chariots" to castles, and the "foot soldiers" to pawns.
  • Instead of representing the units in an army, the pieces now stood in for Western social order - those who fought (knights), those who prayed (clergy) and those who worked (the rest).

In ‘The Queen’s Gambit’ and beyond, chess holds up a mirror to life

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Alexandria during the third and second centuries BCE

Alexandria, with its Great Library, was marked as the intellectual capital of the world.

During the third century BCE, the Musaeum, an educational and research institution, was built in Alexandria. The Great Library was one part of the Musaeum and may have held around 700,000 scrolls (equivalent to over 100,000 printed books.)

Centers of Progress: Alexandria (Information)

humanprogress.org

Ancient Egypt and hieroglyphs

Ancient Egypt has exerted power of influence on the world of learning for over two millennia.

The Greek historian Herodotus identified the pyramids at Giza as places of royal burial, but his works did not help 19th Century scholars in understanding ancient Egyptian writing. Greek and Roman writers could not read hieroglyphs either.

How we deciphered Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs

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