Neuroscience: Overview, history, major branches - Deepstash
Neuroscience: Overview, history, major branches

Neuroscience: Overview, history, major branches


655 reads

Neuroscience: Overview, history, major branches

Neuroscience and Neuroscientists

Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions. They study the nervous system's cellular, functional, behavioural, evolutionary, computational, molecular, cellular, and medical aspects.

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science. It works closely with mathematics, linguistics, engineering, computer science, chemistry, philosophy, psychology, and medicine.


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Neuroscience affects all human functions, but it also assists in a better understanding of common conditions such as Down syndrome, Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, addiction, brain tumours, immune system disorders like multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease.

Understanding the neurological factors can facilitate in developing medications and other strategies to treat and prevent these conditions.


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  • The ancient Greeks first tried to understand the role of the brain and to explain neural disorders. Aristotle thought the brain was a blood-cooling mechanism.
  • French physician Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) concluded that different parts of the brain had specific functions.
  • In 1873 Italian physician Gamillo Golgi used silver chromate salt to detect neurons.
  • Spanish pathologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal hypothesised that neurons are independent nerve cell units.
  • Since the 1950s, scientific development enabled neuroscientists to study the nervous system more in-depth.


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  • Affective neuroscience. How neurons behave in relation to emotions.
  • Behavioural neuroscience.
  • Clinical neuroscience. Disorders of the nervous system.
  • Cognitive neuroscience. How the brain forms thoughts.
  • Computational neuroscience.
  • Cultural neuroscience.
  • Developmental neuroscience. How the brain and the nervous system grow and change.
  • Molecular and cellular neuroscience.
  • Neuroengineering.
  • Neuroimaging.
  • Neuroinformatics.
  • Neurolinguistics.
  • Neurophysiology. How the brain and its function relate to different parts of the body.


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