The Evolutionary Theory: Emotions Are Innate - Deepstash
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The Evolutionary Theory: Emotions Are Innate

According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, emotions are thought to have clear neural bases in the brain and are universal across cultures and species. As such, emotions are thought to be innate​Plutchik's emotion wheel uses an evolutionary perspective on emotion. ​​


580 reads


The Emotion Wheel

The Emotion Wheel

Given the complexity of emotions, Robert Plutchik created the Emotion Wheel to visualize the complexity of emotions and help people identify and label their emotions. The Emotion Wheel uses color to depict discrete emotions and blends of emotion, uses their grad...


438 reads

The Functions of Emotions in the Emotion Wheel

The Functions of Emotions in the Emotion Wheel

Plutchik argued that each emotion serves an evolutionary function and he identified specific survival behaviors as triggered by specific emotions.

For example, the emotions of fear/terror result in withdrawing behaviors that are meant to protect oneself. I...


204 reads


Emotions can get in the way or can get you on the way.



249 reads


Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.



302 reads

The Components of Emotion in the Emotion Wheel -1 Of 3

Emotions are coordinated with the body’s physiological responses.

For example, when you are scared, your heart rate typically increases and your palms get sweaty. There is some debate about whether emotions precede or proceed these physiological r...


289 reads

Theories Behind the Emotion Wheel

Emotions have been of interest to philosophers and scientists for centuries. Currently, there are 2 primary theories about emotion. 

The evolutionary theory of emotion states that emotions evolved to enhance survival by prompting appropriate reactions to th...


584 reads

Relationships Between Emotions

Relationships Between Emotions

The center of the emotion wheel reflects the maximal levels of arousal of each emotion. The emotions further away from the center of the emotion wheel represent milder arousal levels of the primary emotions. Emotions placed closer to each other in the emotion wheel are deemed more similar...


316 reads

How to Use the Emotion Wheel

The Emotion Wheel can be a useful tool in individual therapy, group settings, or on your own to identify, generate, and explore the complexity of emotions. For example, in therapy, the Emotion Wheel can be a visual cue to discuss and label one’s emotions or try t...


200 reads

How to Use the Emotion Wheel

The Emotion Wheel can also be used to reflect on some of the bridges people experience between their emotions (e.g., anger and sadness may frequently co-occur). To help people regulate their emotions, the Emotion Wheel can be a visual aid for converting emotions from nega...


183 reads

The Social Constructivist Theory: Emotions Are Developed

For example, not all cultures have the same words for different emotions (the German word ‘schadenfreude’ means taking pleasure in someone else’s pain and there is no equivalent word in the English language). This view of emotions suggests that multiple brain net...


413 reads

The Components of Emotion in the Emotion Wheel -3 Of 3

The subjective feeling component of emotion refers to our experience of emotions.

When we talk about our emotions, the subjective feeling is typically what we think of and describe (e.g., “I feel sad about…”). Wr...


221 reads

The Components of Emotion in the Emotion Wheel -2 Of 3

Emotions are associated with facial, verbal, and/or behavioral expressions.

Charles Darwin first noted the universality of this component of emotion in his book, “On the Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals” published in 1872. For example, he wrote abo...


217 reads


All perception is colored by emotion.



226 reads

What is the Emotion Wheel?

The Emotion Wheel was created by Robert Plutchik to help organize complex emotions and so that people could more easily gain clarity, identify, and label their emotions. We'll dive into the specific emotions in the emotion wheel, and how to use it, but first let's talk a bit abou...


1.18K reads

What is an Emotion?

Emotions prepare us to respond to a perceived or real environmental stimulus (e.g., being chased by a mountain lion or thinking that a friend is angry can both produce fear, causing us to retreat). But what differentiates an emotion from a mood, a ph...


707 reads

Theories Behind the Emotion Wheel

The social constructivist theory of emotion (Barrett, 2009) posits that emotions are not innate, and instead are socially and culturally constructed. In other words, past experience, informed by upbringing and culture, colors our interpretation of viscer...


520 reads

The 8 Primary Emotions

The 8 Primary Emotions

  1. Grief
  2. Loathing
  3. Terror
  4. Vigilance
  5. Rage
  6. Admiration
  7. Amusement
  8. Ecstasy


595 reads

Why Does the Emotion Wheel Work?​

People at times struggle with communicating how they feel. People often say they “feel bad” and sometimes cannot be more specific. Using clear emotion labels helps people to have more awareness of their emotions and communicate with others about their needs. People who use more granular l...


165 reads

Using the Emotion Wheel to Boost Well-Being​

Now that you have the emotion wheel to better identify and label your emotions, here are some exercises that can help you put this tool to use to grow your well-being.

  • Explore what emotions you value
  • Explore what contributes to your happiness


173 reads




“An idea is something that won’t work unless you do.” - Thomas A. Edison

What are emotions and what is the Emotion Wheel? Learn how to identify and label your emotions using the Emotion Wheel.

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Sadness is a primary emotion that is expressed and perceived equally across cultures. Basic emotions such as anger, happiness and sadness are innate and universal. Understanding basic emotions in music is very quick and does not require musical training. For instance, hearing a sad cello performa...

Evolutionary theory of aging

Evolutionary theory of aging

It says that an organism begins aging after they have reached their peak of reproduction and have passed down adaptive traits.

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Labelling Emotions

The brain loves to identify, tag, or label all the feelings and emotions that are being experienced.

New studies show that changing the name of the emotion can change the feeling that is produced by hearing that emotion, and the brain may be able to create or make up emotions that don't ...


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