Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet
  • He was a French psychologist who partially contributed to the formation of IQ test - the objective measurement for intelligence;
  • He studied physiology after getting his law degree in 1878, then worked at a neurological clinic in Paris in 1880s, then pursued a long term career in research and became a director of the Sorbonne; and
  • Has published over 200 books and articles on diverse subject matters;
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Harry Harlow
  • He studied the behavior of monkeys in a laboratory environment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison;
  • His researched proved his hypothesis that "human infants needed similar contact from their mothers" correct when baby monkeys showed that they needed more than mere sustenance to thrive. They needed contact comfort.
  • His contribution continues to be an influential breakthrough in parenting styles up to date.
Ivan Pavlov
  • In contrast to what people think, Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who quit priesthood to pursue science;
  • Famously known for his theory of classical conditioning - where an external stimuli can have direct influence in a behavioral response;
  • He won a Nobel prize for his work.
B.F. Skinner
  • Burrhus Frederic Skinner is known for his work on operant conditioning - it is a form of behavior modification that helps elaborate and alter certain behaviors.
  • He is also famously known for his experimentation using a condition chamber or commonly known as the "Skinner Box". The Skinner Box led to the formation of theories about ideal reward reinforcement schedules.
William James
  • He earned his medical degree at Harvard University back in 1869 but never practiced medicine;
  • He taught at Harvard in 1873 for physiology and was the first to offer the course "physiological psychology";
  • He is popularly known for his number of theories such as: theory of the self, the James-Lange theory of emotion, pragmatic theory of truth, and the two-stage model of free will;
  • Also contributed significantly to the philosophy of religion
Wilhelm Wundt
  • He was the first founder of the psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig which marked the official beginning of psychology as an independent science;
  • Has many beliefs and theories but was heavily misunderstood by some due to the language barrier. His student, Edward Bradford Titchener propagated many misconceptions about his works.
Mary Whiton Calkins
  • Widely known for her research about the self;
  • She understood the importance of self-psychology and that it should be a part of scientific research;
  • Despite her contribution to Harvard, the university did not confer degrees to women during that time;
  • She has published four books and more than 100 articles in psychology and philosophy;
  • She was also elected president of the APA and she also established her own psychology lab in the United States.
Edward Thorndike
  • Recognized for his contributions in psychometrics;
  • His work was focused on the development of the field of educational psychology - this is the branch that focuses on studying how people take in knowledge in order to further develop educational materials and approaches for teaching;
  • He is also known for his puzzle box experiments with animals.
Sigmund Freud
  • He is well-known as the "father of psychoanalytic theory";
  • He has contributed tremendously to psychoanalysis in the late 1890s because of his deep-rooted fascination to the study of the mind;
  • Due to the increasing number of his following in the early 1900s, it resulted to the meeting of the first International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1908.

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The beginnings of psychology differ significantly from contemporary conceptions of the field. Modern psychology covers a range of topics, looking at human behavior en mental processes from the neural level to the cultural level.

The Origins of Psychology: History Through the Years

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Personality Psychology: Important Terminology
  • Classical conditioning: A behavioural technique where a natural stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus. The previously neutral stimulus eventually cause the response without pairing it to the natural stimulus.
  • Operant conditioning: A behaviour training technique where punishments or reinforcements influence behaviour.
  • Unconscious: The container for feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories.
  • Id: The personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy used to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires.
  • Ego: The unconscious part of the personality that moderates the id's demands, the superego, and reality.
  • Superego: The part of personality composed of our internalised ideals that comes from our parents and society.

What Personality Theories in Psychology May Tell You About Yours

verywellmind.com

When Psychology Became A Separate Scientific Discipline

When psychology developed as a science that was separate from biology and philosophy, they did not know how to describe the human mind and behaviour.

Different schools of psychology emerged that represent major theories within psychology. At first, psychologists identified with only one school of thought, but today, most psychologists draw on ideas and theories from various schools.

The 7 Major Schools of Thought in Psychology

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