How DNA Works | HowStuffWorks - Deepstash
How DNA Works | HowStuffWorks

How DNA Works | HowStuffWorks

science.howstuffworks.com

1

1

Keep reading for FREE

Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation

The two major stages in making a protein: transcription and translation.

When a cell makes a copy of the DNA, it's then called the RNA since it uses a different type of nucleic acid which is ribonucleic acid. The RNA is used in translation where it's converted (translated) into a sequence of amino acids that make up the protein.

23

79 reads

The Progressors of DNA

The Progressors of DNA

  • Friedrich Meischer - originally discovered nucleic acids in 1868
  • Oswald Avery and his colleagues - proved that DNA contained information by experimenting with bacteria in 1943
  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase - supported the information role of DNA through experimentation with viruses
  • James D. Watson and Francis Crick - discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 that made them receive a Nobel Prize

28

104 reads

DNA Structure

  • The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a pattern made up of four different parts called nucleotides.
  • Each nucleotide consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a nitrogenous base.
  • There are two classes of nitrogen bases called purines (double-ringed structures) and pyrimidines (single-ringed structures).
  • The DNA has four bases: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.
  • The DNA is often visualized like a spiral staircase -- the double helix.

24

71 reads

The DNA inside a cell

  • The DNA is a long molecule that is about a millimeter long.
  • While humans have 46 chromosomes, plants and animals are complex organisms which can contain 50 to 100 thousand genes on many different chromosomes.
  • The DNA of such organisms are twisted around bead-shaped proteins called histones. They are coiled tightly to form chromosomes that are located in the nucleus of the cell.
  • Every time a cell reproduces the DNA gets copied and distributed to each offspring.

24

71 reads

DNA Replication Process

DNA Replication Process

  • For the replication process to occur, it is highly dependent on whether the cells are prokaryotic or if it's a eukaryote. Regardless of where it happens, the DNA replication process is the same.
  • The DNA is shaped like a double helix that runs in opposite directions in which is able to unzip down the middles so that it may serve as a template for the other side.
  • The small area where it can unzip is called a replication fork, where it moves down the entire length of the molecule.

25

46 reads

How the DNA Operates

  • The DNA carries the instructions on making protein, which is basically the determinant for our physical characteristics.
  • A protein is basically made up of a lot of amino acids and it has many functions from aiding digestion to making antibodies for the immune system.
  • Protein usually differs from one another, and the particular sequence causes the chain of the amino acids together, this then is encoded in the DNA.

23

49 reads

Building A Protein

Building A Protein

If we equate DNA as the master blueprint, we could then say that a protein is the house. There are many involved in this process such as the messenger RNA which is the working copy of the DNA, the cytoplasm, amino acids, ribosomes, and the transfer RNA molecules.

Basically speaking, proteins are made inside cells. The instructions of how to make proteins are held inside the DNA molecules and the two major stages in making a protein are called transcription and translation.

24

42 reads

CURATED BY

violet_s

"What is called genius is the abundance of life and health." - Thoreau

Ready for the next level?

Read Like a Pro

stash-superman-illustration

Explore the World’s

Best Ideas

200,000+ ideas on pretty much any topic. Created by the smartest people around & well-organized so you can explore at will.

An Idea for Everything

Explore the biggest library of insights. And we've infused it with powerful filtering tools so you can easily find what you need.

Knowledge Library

Powerful Saving & Organizational Tools

Save ideas for later reading, for personalized stashes, or for remembering it later.

# Personal Growth

Take Your Ideas

Anywhere

Organize your ideas & listen on the go. And with Pro, there are no limits.

Listen on the go

Just press play and we take care of the words.

Never worry about spotty connections

No Internet access? No problem. Within the mobile app, all your ideas are available, even when offline.

Get Organized with Stashes

Ideas for your next work project? Quotes that inspire you? Put them in the right place so you never lose them.

Join

2 Million Stashers

4.8

Stars

5,740 Reviews

App Store

4.7

Stars

72,690 Reviews

Google Play

Shankul Varada

Best app ever! You heard it right. This app has helped me get back on my quest to get things done while equipping myself with knowledge everyday.

samz905

Don’t look further if you love learning new things. A refreshing concept that provides quick ideas for busy thought leaders.

Ashley Anthony

This app is LOADED with RELEVANT, HELPFUL, AND EDUCATIONAL material. It is creatively intellectual, yet minimal enough to not overstimulate and create a learning block. I am exceptionally impressed with this app!

Sean Green

Great interesting short snippets of informative articles. Highly recommended to anyone who loves information and lacks patience.

Giovanna Scalzone

Brilliant. It feels fresh and encouraging. So many interesting pieces of information that are just enough to absorb and apply. So happy I found this.

Ghazala Begum

Even five minutes a day will improve your thinking. I've come across new ideas and learnt to improve existing ways to become more motivated, confident and happier.

Jamyson Haug

Great for quick bits of information and interesting ideas around whatever topics you are interested in. Visually, it looks great as well.

Laetitia Berton

I have only been using it for a few days now, but I have found answers to questions I had never consciously formulated, or to problems I face everyday at work or at home. I wish I had found this earlier, highly recommended!

Read & Learn

20x Faster

without
deepstash

with
deepstash

with

deepstash

Access to 200,000+ ideas

Access to the mobile app

Unlimited idea saving & library

Unlimited history

Unlimited listening to ideas

Downloading & offline access

Personalized recommendations

FAQ

Claim Your Limited Offer

Get Deepstash Pro

BLACK FRIDAY

75% OFF | 1-Year Pro Subscription

Claim Offer