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The Psychologically Healthy Person Has:

The Psychologically Healthy Person Has:

1. An openness to all experience.

2. An ability to live fully in every moment.

3. The will to follow their own instincts, rather than the will of others.

4. Freedom in thought and action, e.g. spontaneity, flexibility

5. Much creativity.


656 reads


The Social and Cultural Perspective

The Social and Cultural Perspective

  • People are so familiar with their own upbringing and way of life that they often forget just how different it can be– not just in other countries but even next door! 
  • Socialization”– the process of learning the “norms” or rul...


523 reads



  • Why do many animals form social groups? In one word: SURVIVAL! This applies to both INDIVIDUAL and SPECIES survival.
  • Individual Survival requires protection (including shelter from the weather and getting food).
  • Species Survival requires reproduction (involving finding a suit...


578 reads



An attitude can be divided into 3 aspects:

1. Cognitive–the beliefs (factual & neutral) e.g. “Smoking is a major cause of cancer”.

2. Affective–the emotional feelings e.g. “I hate the smell of cigarettes”.

3. Behavioural–the actions taken e.g. “I only eat in non-smoking restaura...


558 reads

Sexual Attraction

Sexual Attraction

  1. Compatibility: people tend to “pair off” with those who are generally similar or “matching”.
  2. Rewards and Costs: attention, affection, trust, security, sharing, skills, information, status, money, energy, reproduction, sex…
  3. Specific Factors

Familiarity and Exposure...


553 reads

How To Reward Or Punish Someone?

How To Reward Or Punish Someone?

  • It’s found that the optimum period between response and reinforcement is about half a second, i.e. almost immediately. This is very important. For example, if a parent wants to reward or punish a child, then to be effective it should ...


812 reads

The Halo Effect

The Halo Effect

The Halo Effect occurs when we generalize a person’s Central Traits. For example, if someone is perceived as basically “good” or “likeable”, then we tend t...


572 reads

Introducing Psychology

Introducing Psychology

  • Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behaviour of humans and animals.”
  • Nothing is Certain: We can never be certain about the future. Just because something’s alway...


2.03K reads

The Defence Mechanisms

The Defence Mechanisms

  • ……These are ways to unconsciously protect ourselves from unpleasant ideas. In small doses, they help everyday survival.
  • It’s natural to seek situations that give comfort, especially when under stress. Sucking a finger, thu...


966 reads

The Psychodynamic Perspective

The Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Psychodynamic” means “active mind” - There is mental struggle– especially in the hidden unconscious mind. 
  • The Libido- “sex drive” is the ENERGY we have that motivates and e...


1.28K reads



  1. Proximity– because the dots are close together, they are perceived together as a line.
  2. Continuity– we tend to perceive two lines crossing rather than two V- shapes.
  3. Similarity– vertical columns are perceived rather than horizontal rows.
  4. Closure– missing parts are assu...


687 reads

Adult Schemas

Adult Schemas

  1.  Recognition is mainly Assimilation– taking in the surroundings, checking that things are the same, provides comfort and security.
  2. Learning, is mainly Accommodation– adding new information to change existing knowledge. 

If there was too much recognition– if everything sta...


533 reads

Learning Laws

Learning Laws

  1. The Law of Exercise– repetition strengthens learning. (Or, “Practice makes perfect”.) Learning by repetition is called Rote Learning or “Parrot Fashion”.
  2. The Law of Effect– the effect of reward is to strengthen learning. (Or, “If it’s pleasurable, it will be repeated”.).



1.48K reads

The Cognitive Perspective

The Cognitive Perspective

  • Cognitive” basically means “Thinking”– perceiving, memory, language, problem- solving, and so on. 
  • The mind is ACTIVE and constantly looking for MEANINGS. They especially studied this in relation to visual perception, e.g. recogn...


749 reads

Self Actualization

Self Actualization

  • SELF- ACTUALIZATION: the innate human motivation to ACHIEVE OUR POTENTIAL by using and developing our talents and abilities. Each time we experience such a sense of fulfillment is called a PEAK EXPERIENCE. 
  • In order to reach Self- Actualization, we have to satisfy lower “needs” that ...


627 reads

The Id, Ego and Superego

The Id, Ego and Superego

  • The Id is inborn and It operates by The Pleasure Principle– the baby seeks pleasure and avoids the unpleasurable. The Id typically wants immediate gratification. 
  • The


1.67K reads

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Natural Selection comes in two parts.

  1. First, changes can occur from one generation to the next. This is now known to be random “mutations” in the genes.
  2. Second, there is the meaning of “Selection”: Changes that are b...


1.04K reads

The Primacy / Recency Effect

The Primacy / Recency Effect

  • The Primacy / Recency Effect refers to whether we discover information about someone earlier (Primacy) or later (Recency). The Primacy Effect–“first impressions count”–occurs from the moment of meeting a person (within second...


536 reads

Why Punishment is Often Ineffective ?

Why Punishment is Often Ineffective ?


  • It causes the individual to AVOID BEING PUNISHED rather than stop the undesired behavior. ex: a person avoids getting caught etc..
  • It can cause the individual to associate the punishment with the PUNISHER, rather than the BEHAVIOUR. 
  • It may train an individu...


909 reads




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