What Is Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)? - Deepstash
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ODD: Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

ODD: Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

ODD is a behavioral disorder that results in defiance and anger against authority. It can affect a person’s work, school, and social life.

ODD affects between 1 and 16 percent of school age children. It’s more common in boys than girls. Many children start to show symptoms of ODD between the ages of 6 and 8 years. ODD also occurs in adults. Adults with ODD who were not diagnosed as children often go undiagnosed.


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ODD Among Children

ODD Among Children

  • frequent temper tantrums or episodes of anger
  • refusal to comply with adult requests
  • excessive arguing with adults and authority figures
  • always questioning or actively disregarding rules
  • behavior intended to upset, annoy, or anger others, especially authority figures
  • blaming others for their own mistakes or misbehaviors
  • being easily annoyed
  • vindictiveness


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ODD Among Adults

ODD Among Adults

  • feeling angry at the world
  • feeling misunderstood or disliked
  • strong dislike for authority, including supervisors at work
  • identifying as a rebel
  • defending themselves vehemently and not being open to feedback
  • blaming others for their own mistakes


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Diagnosis of ODD

The disorder is often difficult to diagnose in adults because many of the symptoms overlap with antisocial behaviors , substance abuse, and other disorders.

There is no proven cause of ODD, but there are theories that can help identify potential causes. It’s thought a combination of environmental, biological, and psychological factors cause ODD. For example, it’s more common in families with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) .


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Behavioural pattern of the victim of ODD

At least one of these symptoms must be displayed with someone who is not a sibling. The categories and symptoms include:

Angry or irritable mood, which includes symptoms like:

  • often losing their temper
  • being touchy
  • being easily annoyed
  • often becoming angry or resentful


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Argumentative or defiant behavior, which includes symptoms like:

  • having frequent arguments with authority figures or adults
  • actively defying requests from authority figures
  • refusing to comply with requests from authority figures
  • deliberately annoying others
  • blaming others for misbehavior


  • acting spitefully at least twice in a six-month period


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Therapies applied for treating ODD

Individual cognitive behavioral therapy: A psychologist will work with the child to improve:

  • anger management skills
  • communication skills
  • impulse control
  • problem-solving skills

They may also be able to identify potential contributing factors.


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Following therapies have been very useful for treating ODD

Family therapy: A psychologist will work with the whole family to make changes. This can help parents find support and learn strategies for handling their child’s ODD.

Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT): Therapists will coach the parents as they interact with their children. Parents can learn more effective parenting techniques.

Peer groups: The child can learn how to improve their social skills and relationships with other children.

Medications: These can help treat causes of ODD, such as depression or ADHD. However, there is no specific medication to treat ODD itself.


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  • increasing positive reinforcements and reducing negative reinforcements
  • using consistent punishment for bad behavior
  • using predictable and immediate parenting responses
  • modeling positive interactions in the household
  • reducing environmental or situational triggers (For example, if your child’s disruptive behaviors seem to increase with a lack of sleep, make sure they get enough sleep.)


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Adults with ODD can manage their disorder by:


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A Teacher in A Senior Secondary School. Follow me on Instagram @Ramijr32. Love to be with you.


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