The problem with hope is that it is fundamentally transactional - it is a bargain between one's current actions for some imagined, pleasant future. Don't eat this, and you'll go to heaven. Don't kill that person, or you'll get in trouble. Work hard and save your money, because that will make you happy.
To transcend the transactional real of hope, one much act unconditionally
Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher argued that the most fundamental moral duty is the preservation and growth of consciousness, both in ourselves and in others. He called this principle of always putting consciousness first "the Formula of Humanity". This formula explains our basic moral intuitions. It explains the concept of virtue. It explains how to act in our day to day lives without relying on some imagined vision of hope.
Act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.
Kant's Formula of Humanity states that treating any human being as a means to some other end is the basis of all wrong behaviour. You must act unconditionally. For example, you must respect someone without expecting anything in return. If you expect something in return then you are treating someone as a means.
Lying is wrong because you are misleading another person's conscious behaviour in order to achiever your own goal. You are treating that person as a means to your own end.
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